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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
other: read across from analogue substance
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
8 October 2015 - 28 October 2015
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method C.3 (Algal Inhibition test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Test item without emulsifier was investigated.

Amidoamine (UVCB):
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Amidoamine (UVCB)
- Substance type: Amidoamine
- Chemical name: Glycerides, C14-20, reaction products with diethylenetriamine (preliminary naming)/Amides, from diethylenetriamine and hydrogenated palm oil
- CAS 85409-11-6/1618093-67-6
- Physical state: pale yellowish solid at 20 °C
- Batch No.: K8 4309 L481
- Expiry date of batch: 09 March 2018
- Purity: 100 % (UVCB)
- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature, protected from light
- Stability: stable under test conditions
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: WAF of 100 mg/l test item
- A sample of each loading rate WAF was taken for chemical analysis at 0 and 72 hours in order to determine the stability of the test item over the test duration. All samples were stored frozen prior to analysis. Only concentrations within the range to be used for the definitive test were analyzed.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
The loading rate to be used in the definitive test was determined by a preliminary range-finding test. The range-finding test was conducted by exposing Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata cells to nominal loading rates of 10 and 100 mg/L for a period of 72 hours. The test was conducted in 250 mL glass conical flasks each containing 100 mL of test preparation and plugged with polyurethane foam bungs to reduce evaporation. Two replicate flasks were prepared for each control and test concentration. Nominal amounts of test item (20 and 200 mg) were each separately added to the surface of 2 liters of culture medium to give the 10 and 100 mg/L loading rates respectively. After the addition of the test item, the culture medium was stirred by magnetic stirrer using a stirring rate
such that a vortex was formed to give a dimple at the water surface. The stirring was stopped after 23 hours and the mixtures allowed to stand for 1 hour. Visual observations made on the WAFs indicated that a significant amount of dispersed test item was present in the water column and hence it was considered justifiable to remove the WAFs by filtering through a glass wool plug (2-4 cm in length). A wide bore glass tube, covered at one end with Nescofilm was submerged into the vessel, sealed end down, to a depth of approximately 5 cm from the bottom of the vessel. A length of Tygon tubing was inserted into the glass tube and pushed through the Nescofilm seal. A glass wool plug was inserted into the opposite end of the tubing and the WAF removed by mid-depth siphoning (the first 75-100 mL discarded) to give the 10 and 100 mg/L loading rate WAFs. Microscopic observations of the WAFs were performed after filtering and showed there to be no micro-dispersions of test item present.
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Details on test organisms:
The test was carried out using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata strain CCAP 278/4. Liquid cultures of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were obtained from the Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP), SAMS Research Services Ltd, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, Scotland. Master cultures were maintained in the laboratory by the periodic replenishment of culture medium (Section 3.3). The master cultures were maintained in the laboratory under
constant aeration and illumination at 21 ± 1 °C.
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Hardness:
NaHCO3 15.0 mg/L culture medium
CaCl2.2H2O 4.41mg/L culture medium
Test temperature:
24 ± 1 ºC, thermo-controlled room
pH:
7.5
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Preliminary investigational work was carried out to determine whether stirring for a prolonged period produced significantly higher levels of dissolved test item in the WAF. A WAF of a nominal loading rate of 100 mg/L was prepared in duplicate in deionized reverse osmosis water and stirred using a stirring rate such that a vortex was formed to give a dimple at the water surface. One loading rate was stirred for a period of 23 hours and the other for a period of 95 hours. After a 1-Hour standing period the mixtures were then removed by siphon and samples taken for chemical analysis. It is evident from this work that increasing the stirring period did not increase the amount of dissolved test item in the WAF and so preparation of the WAF was maintained at 24 hours. The concentration and stability of the test item in the test preparations were verified by chemical analysis at 0 and 72 hours.
Details on test conditions:
As in the range-finding test 250 mL glass conical flasks were used. Six flasks each containing 100 mL of test preparation were used for the control and 100 mg/L loading rate WAF treatment group. The control group was maintained under identical conditions but not exposed to the test item. Pre-culture conditions gave an algal suspension in log phase growth characterized by a cell density of 6.96 x 10^5 cells per mL. Inoculation of 1 liter of test medium with 7.2 mL of this algal suspension gave an initial nominal cell density of 5 x 10^3 cells per mL and had no significant dilution effect on the final test concentration. The flasks were plugged with polyurethane foam bungs and incubated (INFORS Multitron Version 2 incubator) at 24 ± 1 °C under continuous illumination (intensity approximately 7000 lux) provided by warm white lighting (380 – 730 nm) and constantly shaken at approximately 150 rpm for 72 hours.

To determine the potential effect of the test item on the appearance of algal cells, a sample was removed from each test and control culture (replicates pooled) at the end of the test. The shape and size of the algal cells was inspected microscopically and any abnormalities recorded.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
>= 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL10
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL10
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EL50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
NOELR
Effect conc.:
>= 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
cell number
Details on results:
Chemical analysis of the test preparations at 0 and 72 hours (see Appendix 5) showed measured test concentrations of less than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytical method employed were obtained which was determined to be 0.0047 mg/L. This does not infer that no test item was in solution, just that any dissolved test item was at a concentration of less than the LOQ. Given that toxicity cannot be attributed to a single component or mixture of components but to
the test item as a whole, the results were based on nominal loading rates only.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
A positive control (Study Number 41501180) used potassium dichromate as the reference item at concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L.
Exposure conditions and data evaluation for the positive control were similar to those in the definitive test.
Exposure of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (CCAP 278/4) to the reference item gave the following results:

ErC50 (0 – 72 h) : 1.0 mg/L; 95% confidence limits 0.90 – 1.2 mg/L
EyC50 (0 – 72 h) : 0.49 mg/L; 95% confidence limits 0.42 – 0.58 mg/L

The results from the positive control with potassium dichromate were within the normal ranges for this reference item.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis of the growth rate data was carried out for the control and 100 mg/L loading rate WAF test group using a Student’s t-test incorporating Bartlett's test for homogeneity of variance (Sokal and Rohlf, 1981) and Dunnett's multiple comparison procedure for comparing several treatments with a control (Dunnett, 1955).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The effect of the test item on the growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata has been investigated and gave EL50 values of greater than 100 mg/L loading rate WAF. The No Observed Effect Loading Rate was 100 mg/L loading rate WAF.
Executive summary:

In the Klimisch 1 GLP study from Vryenhoef (2015) the effect of the test item on the growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was determined in a 72‑hour static limit test according to Part C.3 of the Commission Regulation (EC) No 440/2008

and the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 201 (2006). Due to the low aqueous solubility and complex nature of the test item, for the purposes of the test, the test medium was prepared as a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF). The nominal test item concentration tested was 100.0 mg/L. Additionally, a control group was tested in parallel. The effect of the test item on the growth  of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata has been investigated and gave EL50 values of greater than 100 mg/L loading rate WAF.  The No Observed Effect Loading Rate was 100 mg/L loading rate WAF.

Description of key information

LD50, 72h > 100 mg/l loading rate WAF, value used for CSA

NOAEL, 72h > 100 mg/l loading rate WAF

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
100 mg/L
EC10 or NOEC for freshwater algae:
100 mg/L

Additional information

Analogue substance was tested for toxicity to aquatic algae following OECD 201. Under the experimental conditions the LC50, 72h (NOAEL) > 100 mg/l loading rate WAF.

Based on the read across considerations same results apply to Stearamide DETA

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