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Genetic toxicity: in vitro

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Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
01-10-2014 to 24-10-2015
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study performed under GLP. All relevant validity criteria were met.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2015
Report date:
2015

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method B.13/14 (Mutagenicity - Reverse Mutation Test Using Bacteria)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.5100 - Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test (August 1998)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
JAPAN: Guidelines for Screening Mutagenicity Testing Of Chemicals
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
inspected: March 2014; signature: May 2014
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
1-(5-ethyl-5-methylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)pent-4-en-1-one
EC Number:
807-612-4
Cas Number:
1393645-32-3
Molecular formula:
C14H22O
IUPAC Name:
1-(5-ethyl-5-methylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)pent-4-en-1-one
Test material form:
liquid
Details on test material:
- Physical state: Liquid
- Storage condition of test material: Refrigerated in the dark under nitrogen
- Other: clear colourless

Method

Species / strainopen allclose all
Species / strain / cell type:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
Rat liver S9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Experiment 1 (pre-incubation method): 0, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 µg/plate
Experiment 2 (pre-incubation method): 0, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 µg/plate
Up to eight test item dose levels were selected in Experiment 2 in order to achieve both a minimum of four non-toxic doses and the toxic/guideline limit of the test item. The dose levels were selected based on the results of Experiment 1.

Salmonella strain TA1537 (with and without S9-mix): 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 μg/plate.
Salmonella strain TA98 and E.coli strain WP2uvrA (with and without S9-mix): 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500, 5000 μg/plate.
Salmonella strains TA100 and TA1535 (with and without S9-mix): 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150, 500 μg/plate.
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)
- Justification for choice of solvent/vehicle: The test item was immiscible in sterile distilled water at 50 mg/mL but was fully miscible in dimethyl sulphoxide at the same concentration in solubility checks performed. Dimethyl sulphoxide was selected as the vehicle.
- Other: Formulated concentrations were (if required) adjusted by an appropriate factor to allow for the stated purity of the test item.
Controls
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide
9-aminoacridine
N-ethyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
benzo(a)pyrene
other: 2-Aminoanthracene
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: Experiment 1. in medium; in agar (pre-incubation) ; Experiment 2. in medium; in agar (pre-incubation)

DURATION
- Exposure duration:
Experiment 1. 0.1 mL of the appropriate bacterial strain culture, 0.5 mL of phosphate buffer (or S9-activation mix, as applicable) and 0.1 mL of the test item formulation, solvent or 0.1 mL of appropriate positive control were incubated at 37 °C± 3 °C for 20 minutes (with shaking) prior to addition of 2 mL of amino-acid supplemented media and subsequent plating onto Vogel-Bonner plates. After setting, the plates were placed in anaerobic jars or bags (one jar/bag for each concentration of test item/vehicle) during the incubation procedure. All testing for this experiment was performed in triplicate. Concurrent negative controls were dosed using the standard plate incorporation method. All of the plates were incubated at 37 °C± 3 °C for approximately 48 hours and scored for the presence of revertant colonies using an automated colony counting system. The plates were viewed microscopically for evidence of thinning (toxicity).

Experiment 2. The procedure for incubation and duration was the same as in Experiment 1.

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: 3

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: relative total growth
Rationale for test conditions:
In accordance with the relevant guidelines.
Evaluation criteria:
There are several criteria for determining a positive result. Any, one, or all of the following can be used to determine the overall result of the study:
1. A dose-related increase in mutant frequency over the dose range tested (De Serres and Shelby, 1979).
2. A reproducible increase at one or more concentrations.
3. Biological relevance against in-house historical control ranges.
4. Statistical analysis of data as determined by UKEMS (Mahon et al., 1989).
5. Fold increase greater than two times the concurrent solvent control for any tester strain (especially if accompanied by an out of historical range response (Cariello and Piegorsch, 1996)).
A test item is considered non-mutagenic (negative) in the test system if the above criteria are not met.
In instances of data prohibiting definitive judgement about test item activity are reported as equivocal.
Statistics:
Statistical methods (Mahon, et al.); as recommended by the UKEMS Subcommittee on Guidelines for Mutagenicity Testing, Report - Part III (1989).

Results and discussion

Test resultsopen allclose all
Species / strain:
E. coli WP2 uvr A
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
See table 1 and 2
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
See table 1 and 2
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
other: all strains/cell types tested

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1 : Test Results: Experiment 1 with and without metabolic activation and results of concurrent positive controls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S9-Mix

(-)

 

Dose Level

Per Plate

Number of revertants (mean) +/- SD

Base-pair substitution strains

Frameshift strains

TA100

TA1535

WP2uvrA

TA98

TA1537

Solvent Control

(DMSO)

103        (92)

100        17.1#

72

12          (13)

13          0.6

13

12          (16)

20          4.0

17

20          (16)

15          3.6

13

13          (14)

9             5.6

20

 

1.5 µg

79         (87)

95          8.0

87          

12         (12)

12          0.0

12          

17         (17)

17          0.0

17          

16         (13)

12          2.6

11          

12         (16)

19          3.6

17          

 

5 µg

95          (78)

79         17.5

60          

11          (13)

11         2.9

16          

17          (21)

21         3.5

24          

16          (21)

23         4.0

23          

12          (14)

15         1.7

15          

 

15 µg

78         (74)

74          4.5

69          

8           (10)

7             4.9

16          

17         (20)

31          9.5

13          

15         (12)

11          2.3

11          

9           (8)

8             1.0

7             

 

50 µg

59          (66)

69          5.8

69

15          (10)

3             6.4

13

17          (18)

17          1.7

20

8             (10)

11          1.7

11

5             (5)

4             0.6

5

 

150 µg

65          (61)

67          8.7

51

7 S         (10)

12 S       2.6

11 S

28          (24)

25          4.0

20

7             (11)

11          3.5

14

7             (5)

4             1.7

4

 

500 µg

82 S      (68)

61 S       12.1

61 S       

17 S      (10)

9 S         6.1

5 S         

21         (22)

29          7.0

15          

17         (12)

9             4.2

11          

7           (7)

4             3.5

11          

 

1500 µg

42 S      (47)

49 S       4.7

51 S       

0 S        (0)

0 S         0.0

0 S         

19         (22)

25          3.1

23          

11         (12)

11          2.3

15          

9 S        (7)

8 S         2.6

4 S         

 

5000 µg

52 S       (52)

52 S      0.6

53 S       

0 V        (0)

0 V        0.0

0 V        

27          (27)

20         6.5

33          

19          (19)

20         0.6

19          

5 S         (5)

5 S        0.0

5 S         

 

Positive controls S9-Mix

(-)

 

Name

Dose Level

No. of Revertants

ENNG

ENNG

ENNG

4NQO

9AA

3 µg

5 µg

2 µg

0.2 µg

80 µg

1070    (977)

887        91.5

974        

2142     (2278)

2444      153.1

2249      

795       (805)

760        51.3

861        

176       (219)

259        41.6

222        

775        (967)

1260      257.6

867

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S9-Mix

(+)

 

Dose Level

Per Plate

Number of revertants (mean) +/- SD

Base-pair substitution strains

Frameshift strains

TA100

TA1535

WP2uvrA

TA98

TA1537

Solvent Control

(DMSO)

91          (98)

92          11.8#

112

12          (12)

15          3.5

8

19          (21)

21          2.5

24

17          (19)

19          2.0

21

17          (18)

20          1.7

17

 

1.5 µg

95         (93)

100        8.2

84          

11         (13)

17          3.2

12          

17         (22)

28          5.6

21          

16         (21)

27          5.6

20          

11         (12)

11          1.2

13          

 

5 µg

91          (87)

82         4.6

88          

8             (13)

13         4.5

17          

27          (21)

15         6.0

20          

15          (15)

11         4.0

19          

16          (18)

15         4.9

24          

 

15 µg

87         (91)

87          6.9

99          

17         (13)

17          6.9

5             

9           (20)

25          9.9

27          

23         (19)

20          4.0

15          

17         (16)

11          4.2

19          

 

50 µg

96          (85)

80          9.5

79

4             (8)

8             4.0

12

20          (22)

20          4.0

27

11          (15)

13          4.7

20

15          (17)

12          5.7

23

 

150 µg

63          (73)

86          11.9

69

8             (12)

16          4.0

13

11          (15)

19          4.0

15

13          (20)

21          7.0

27

9             (11)

12          1.5

11

 

500 µg

82 S      (85)

79 S       8.5

95 S       

9 S        (8)

4 S         3.6

11 S       

27         (21)

17          5.3

19          

23         (19)

15          4.0

19          

15         (8)

7             6.1

3             

 

1500 µg

63 S      (48)

43 S       12.9

39 S       

11 S      (8)

4 S         3.5

8 S         

15         (18)

20          2.6

19          

19         (22)

27          4.4

20          

4 S        (7)

11 S       3.5

7 S         

 

5000 µg

75 S       (78)

76 S      3.8

82 S       

12 S       (13)

16 S      2.3

12 S       

29          (28)

23         4.2

31          

29          (22)

23         7.0

15          

12 S       (6)

4 S        4.9

3 S         

 

Positive controls S9-Mix (+)

 

Name

Dose Level

No. of Revertants

2AA

2AA

2AA

BP

2AA

1 µg

2 µg

10 µg

5 µg

2 µg

1215    (1192)

1156      31.4

1204      

154       (174)

203        25.5

166        

226       (210)

192        17.1

212        

227       (211)

204        13.9

202        

394        (312)

314        82.5

229

 

Table 2 : Test Results: Experiment 2 with and without metabolic activation and results of concurrent positive controls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S9-Mix

(-)

 

Dose Level

Per Plate

Number of revertants (mean) +/- SD

Base-pair substitution strains

Frameshift strains

TA100

TA1535

WP2uvrA

TA98

TA1537

Solvent Control

(DMSO)

88          (76)

78          13.7#

61

21          (15)

9             6.0

16

17          (18)

23          5.0

13

23          (27)

31          4.0

27

12          (13)

19          5.1

9

 

0.5 µg

69         (72)

80          6.7

68          

9           (13)

15          3.5

15          

 

N/T

 

N/T

 

N/T

 

1.5 µg

63          (75)

76         12.0

87          

15          (16)

13         3.6

20          

 

N/T

 

N/T

7             (13)

16         4.9

15          

 

5 µg

84         (79)

75          4.5

79          

19         (17)

16          1.7

16          

20         (24)

27          3.5

24          

25         (24)

31          8.1

15          

15         (16)

17          1.0

16          

 

15 µg

63          (74)

82          10.0

78

9             (14)

13          5.0

19

21          (16)

8             7.2

20

25          (20)

20          5.0

15

12          (12)

12          0.6

13

 

50 µg

69 S       (65)

59 S       5.3

67 S

11          (9)

9             2.0

7

23          (25)

31          5.3

21

15          (18)

21          3.1

17

3             (5)

7             2.1

4

 

150 µg

57 S      (47)

45 S       9.2

39 S       

8 S        (12)

15 S       3.5

12 S       

20         (20)

19          1.0

21          

8           (11)

13          2.9

13          

5           (8)

7             3.6

12          

 

500 µg

59 S      (47)

47 S       12.0

35 S       

0 V        (0)

0 V        0.0

0 V        

21         (22)

24          2.1

20          

15         (18)

23          4.6

15          

4 S        (4)

4 S         0.0

4 S         

 

1500 µg

 

N/T

 

N/T

21          (23)

24         1.5

23          

12          (13)

11         3.2

17          

0 V        (0)

0 V       0.0

0 V        

 

5000 µg

 

N/T

 

N/T

23          (24)

27         3.1

21          

15 S       (13)

15 S      3.5

9 S         

 

N/T

 

Positive controls S9-Mix

(-)

 

Name

Dose Level

No. of Revertants

ENNG

ENNG

ENNG

4NQO

9AA

3 µg

5 µg

2 µg

0.2 µg

80 µg

337        (410)

543      115.6

349

448        (322)

212       118.8

306

825        (900)

949       66.2

927

212        (225)

222       14.7

241

1608      (1187)

850        385.9

1103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S9-Mix

(+)

 

Dose Level

Per Plate

Number of revertants (mean) +/- SD

Base-pair substitution strains

Frameshift strains

TA100

TA1535

WP2uvrA

TA98

TA1537

Solvent Control

(DMSO)

90          (96)

103        6.7#

94

15          (17)

13          5.9

24

23          (27)

24          5.5

33

13          (17)

20          3.8

19

13          (16)

17          3.1

19

 

0.5 µg

87         (82)

75          6.1

83          

7           (11)

16          4.5

11          

 

N/T

 

N/T

 

N/T

 

1.5 µg

82          (80)

74         4.9

83          

9             (12)

13         3.1

15          

 

N/T

 

N/T

16          (16)

20         3.5

13          

 

5 µg

78         (81)

87          4.9

79          

13         (16)

19          3.1

17          

21         (27)

35          7.2

25          

24         (23)

24          2.3

20          

8           (13)

19          5.6

12          

 

15 µg

78          (85)

98          11.0

80

9             (12)

16          3.5

12

20          (20)

16          4.0

24

23          (25)

25          2.0

27

15          (17)

23          5.7

12

 

50 µg

92          (82)

88          13.4

67

15          (12)

9             3.0

12

33          (22)

17          9.2

17

17          (22)

29          6.2

20

23          (14)

7             8.1

13

 

150 µg

76 S      (73)

72 S       2.6

71 S       

9           (10)

11          1.2

11          

25         (20)

19          5.0

15          

15         (16)

24          7.5

9             

12         (10)

15          5.7

4             

 

500 µg

68 S      (59)

67 S       14.2

43 S       

8 S        (8)

12 S       4.0

4 S         

15         (25)

29          9.1

32          

24         (21)

17          3.5

21          

7           (9)

11          2.0

9             

 

1500 µg

 

N/T

 

N/T

13          (14)

13         2.3

17          

17          (13)

15         4.7

8             

7 S         (6)

1 S        5.0

11 S       

 

5000 µg

 

N/T

 

N/T

24          (23)

21         2.1

25          

11          (14)

15         3.1

17          

 

N/T

 

Positive controls S9-Mix (+)

 

Name

Dose Level

No. of Revertants

2AA

2AA

2AA

BP

2AA

1 µg

2 µg

10 µg

5 µg

2 µg

218       (261)

325        56.3

241        

202       (189)

170        16.7

194        

147       (158)

140        25.9

188        

134       (153)

166        16.8

159        

449        (508)

559       55.5

517        

ENNG: N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

4NQO: 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide

9AA: 9-Aminoacridine

BP: Benzo(a)pyrene

2AA: 2-Aminoanthracene

N/T: Not tested at this dose level

S: Sparse bacterial background lawn

T: Toxic, no bacterial background lawn

V: Very weak bacterial background lawn

#: Standard deviation

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results:
Negative
Under the conditions of this study the test item was considered to be non-mutagenic in the presence and absence of S9 activation.
Executive summary:

The study was performed to the requirements of OECD Guideline 471, EU Method B13/14, US EPA OCSPP 870.5100 and Japanese guidelines for bacterial mutagenicity testing under GLP, to evaluate the potential mutagenicity of the test item in a bacterial reverse mutation assay using S.typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and E.coli strain WP2uvrA- in both the presence and absence of S-9 mix. The test strains were treated with the test substance using the Ames pre incubation method at up to eight dose levels, in triplicate, both with and without the addition of a rat liver homogenate metabolizing system (10% liver S9 in standard co-factors). Formulated concentrations were adjusted by an appropriate factor to allow for the stated purity of the test substance. The dose range for Experiment 1 was predetermined and was 1.5 to 5000 µg/plate. The experiment was repeated on a separate day using fresh cultures of the bacterial strains and fresh test item formulations. Eight test item dose levels were again selected in Experiment 2 in order to achieve both a minimum of four non-toxic dose levels and the toxic limit of the test item. The dose range was amended following the results of Experiment 1 and ranged between 0.5 and 5000 µg/plate, depending on bacterial strain type and presence or absence of S9-mix. The vehicle (dimethyl sulphoxide) control plates gave counts of revertant colonies within the normal range. All of the positive control chemicals used in the test induced marked increases in the frequency of revertant colonies, both with or without metabolic activation. Thus, the sensitivity of the assay and the efficacy of the S9-mix were validated. The maximum dose level of the test item in the first experiment was selected as the maximum recommended dose level of 5000 μg/plate. In the first mutation test, the test item induced a visible reduction in the growth of the bacterial background lawns of the tester TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 strains in both the presence and absence of S9-mix. No toxicity was noted to either Salmonella strain TA98 or Escherichia coli strain WP2uvrA at any test item dose level in either the absence or presence of S9-mix. Consequently, for the second mutation test the toxic limit was employed as the maximum dose concentration. Results from the second mutation test (pre-incubation method) confirmed the toxicity previously noted with weakened bacterial background lawns observed in TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 strains. The sensitivity of the bacterial tester strains to the toxicity of the test item varied slightly between strain type, exposures with or without S9 mix. No test item precipitate was observed on the plates at any of the doses tested in either the presence or absence of S9-mix. There were no significant increases in the frequency of revertant colonies recorded for any of the bacterial strains, with any dose of the test item, either with or without metabolic activation (S9 mix). It was concluded that, under the conditions of this assay, the test substance gave a negative, i.e. non-mutagenic response in S.typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and E.coli strain WP2uvrA- in the presence and absence of S-9 mix.