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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Richter, J.E., Peterson, S.F. & Kleiner, C.F. Acute and chronic toxicity of some chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated ethanes, and tetrachloroethylene toDaphnia magna . Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 679–684 (1983). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01060751
Author:
Richter, J.E., Peterson, S.F. & Kleiner, C.F.
Year:
1983
Bibliographic source:
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials): Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians. ASTM Standard E 729- 80, 1. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials (1980).
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Hexachloroethane
EC Number:
200-666-4
EC Name:
Hexachloroethane
Cas Number:
67-72-1
Molecular formula:
C2Cl6
IUPAC Name:
hexachloroethane
Test material form:
solid: crystalline
Specific details on test material used for the study:
All chemicals detailed in the publications came from Aldrich Chemical Co. (Milwaukee, WI) ranged
in purity from 95 to 99%.

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Exposure water was sampled at the beginning and end of the acute exposures

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) were obtained from laboratory stock reared at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN.
First instar daphnids less than 24 hr old were collected from brood animals approximately three weeks old

Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Remarks:
Culturing and testing were done with Lake Superior water which was passed through a 5 micron fiber filter, heated to 20~ and aerated with filtered air.
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h

Test conditions

Hardness:
Hardness and alkalinity (means and ranges) of test waters were, 44.7 (43.5 - 47.5) and 41.5 (37.0 - 45.5) mg/L (CaCO3), respectively.
Test temperature:
20±1°C
pH:
pH ranged from 7.1 to 7.7 and 7.0 to 7.5 for unfed and fed acute tests, respectively.
Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 9.9 and 4.1 to 8.4 mg/L, for unfed and fed acute tests, respectively.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
six toxicant levels; Each toxicant concentration is ~60% of the next higher one.
Details on test conditions:
To determine if feeding during these tests would influence toxicity, simultaneous experiments were conducted on fed and unfed animals.
Test containers were 200 ml Erlenmeyer flasks filled to 200 or 160 ml for unfed and fed tests, respectively.
The food concentration was 20 mgg/ L dry wt. (trout chow and yeast). The flasks were stoppered with foil wrapped, neoprene stoppers.
Four replicates with five animals each were used for the control and six toxicant levels.

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.9 mg/L
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: unfed group
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
2.4 mg/L
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: fed group
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.1 mg/L
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: unfed group
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
1.8 mg/L
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: fed group
Details on results:
Acute toxicity as defined by the 48 hr median lethal concentration and the 48 hr median effective concentration. (LC50 and EC50) were determined for Daphnia magna . There was no mortality among controls. Fed and unfed acute toxicity values were not significantly different,

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 48 hr LC50 values for hexachloroethane were between 2.4 and 2.9 mg/L for fed and unfed group, respectively. The 48 hr EC50 (immobilization) values for hexachloroethane were between 1.8 and 2.1 mg/L for fed and unfed group, respectively. 
Executive summary:

Acute toxicity (48 hr, LC50 and EC50) values were determined for Daphnia magna with hexachloroethane by following Acute bioassays according to ASTM (1980). The 48 hr LC50 values for hexachloroethane were between 2.4 and 2.9 mg/L for fed and unfed group, respectively. The 48 hr EC50 (immobilization) values for hexachloroethane were between 1.8 and 2.1 mg/L for fed and unfed group, respectively.