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Ecotoxicological information

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The substance Paraffins (petroleum), normal C>10 contains a range of carbons between C10 and C20. Its ecotoxicological properties were investigated using a category approach (a read across from two categories: C9 -C14, aliphatics, <= 2% aromatics and C14 -C20, aliphatics, <= 2% aromatics).

Short-term toxicity to fish

Substances identified as C10 -C13 hydrocarbons, C11 -C14 hydrocarbons and C14 -C18 hydrocarbons, each containing n-alkanes, isoalkanes and cyclics, with <2% aromatics, are not expected to demonstrate acute fish toxicity. Based on these results, the substance Paraffins (petroleum), normal C>10 (with a range of carbon covered by the studied substances), is not expected to demonstrate an acute fish toxicity.

Long-term toxicity to fish

Petrotox calculations determined that for all substances from "Hydrocarbons, C14 -C20 and C9 -C14, aliphatics (<= 2% aromatics)" were not toxic to fish. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 28 -day freshwater fish study, based on growth, show that the substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

The normal paraffin substances in this category, including n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, and a substance containing a range of normal paraffins identified as hydrocarbons, C11-C14, containing n-alkanes with less than 2% aromatics, are not expected to demonstrate acute invetebrate toxicity based on results of studies with freshwater and marine invertebrates, including D. magna, C. marinus, and Mysidopsis bahia. Each of these substances has been shown not to demonstrate effects, as measured by immobility or mortality in 48- or 96-hour toxicity studies at the highest loading levels tested, which have ranged from 1000 to 10,000 mg/L. Therefore, the substance Paraffins (petroleum), normal C>10, is expected not to demonstrate short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show that this substance will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility. These results were confirmed by two studies with C14 -C17 and C12 -C15, n-alkanes, that demonstrate that no toxic effect was obtained with 100% WAF corresponding to 70 mg/L.

Toxicity to aquatic algae

A study with the substance Hydrocarbons, C11 -C14, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics, did not showed an algal growth inhibition up to a concentartion of 10,000 mg/l for 72h. Therefore, the substance Paraffins (petroleum), normal C>10, is not expected to inhibit algal growth.

Toxicity to microorganisms

The substance has been showed to be readily biodegradable.Therefore, it is not toxic to microorganisms.