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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

The acute fish toxicity was evaluated by read-across from another substance in the category (tetrapropenyl succinic anhydride, or TPSA).  The acute fish toxicity of TPSA was tested in a static-renewal acute toxicity assay of the  water-soluble fraction of TPSA to rainbow trout.  In the definitive test, no mortality or sublethal effects were observed at any of the test concentrations.  The NOEC was reported as 100 mg/L (based on loading rate), and the 96-h  LC50 was reported as > 100 mg/L (based on loading rate). 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
100 mg/L

Additional information

Two static range-finding toxicity tests on another substance in the category, tetrapropenyl succinic anhydride (dihydro-3-(tetrapropenyl)furan-2,5-dione, or TPSA), were conducted: “Acute Toxicity of OS 18230 to the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas – Results of Range Finding Dispersion Method Test” (Ward, et al., 1996), and “Static Acute Toxicity of Lubricant Additive OS# 18230U to the Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss - Oil-Water Dispersion Study” (Hauthaway, 1997). Both studies were range-finding tests that did not include replicates or analytical monitoring and were conducted according to internal lab protocols based on OECD guideline 203 and U.S. EPA, 1993 methods.  Exposure of fathead minnows to TPSA (OS 18230) resulted in a 96 h LC50 of 16 mg/L (95% confidence interval = 3.3 to 330 mg/L) and a 96 h NOEC of 3.3 mg/L. Due to insoluble material at 330 and 3,300 mg/L, observation of fish was impossible until they were removed from the test vessels, so unobserved sublethal effects may have occurred. Insoluble material was also observed at the 3.3 mg/L and 33 mg/L test concentrations. Therefore, mortality observations may have been confounded by the physical effects of undissolved particles in the test media.

Exposure of the trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss to TPSA resulted in a 96 h LC50of 8.32 mg/L (95% confidence limits of 5.36 to 12.9 mg/L) and a 96 h NOEC of 3.33 mg/L. Substantial phase separation was noted at all test concentrations at which mortality was observed; therefore, mortality observations may be confounded by the physical effects of undissolved test substance particles in the test media. As a consequence of the problematic phase separation and uncertain cause of observed fish mortality, the acute toxicity test on TPSA was repeated in rainbow trout, the most sensitive of the two species. This study was entitled "Tetrapropenyl Succinic Anhydride: Acute Toxicity of the Water-Soluble Fraction (WSF) to the Rainbow Trout, Onchorhyncus mykiss, Determined Under Static-Renewal Conditions" (Dinehart, 2014). The test was conducted as static-renewal, with fresh introduction of the water-soluble fraction of the test substance at 24-h intervals (at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h). Analytical monitoring was not conducted, due to the complex/unknown composition of the test substance and lack of an acceptable analytical standard. After observation of insoluble material in the 10 mg/L and 100 mg/L loading rate test media, and complete mortality of test fish at the 48-h interval in the 100 mg/L loading rate test concentration during the range-finding test, the WSF methodology was modified to reduce the presence of phase-separated material in the definitive test. In the definitive test, some phase-separated material was observed on the surface of the 50 mg/L loading rate and 100 mg/L loading rate test solutions. However, no mortality or sublethal observations were recorded at any of the test concentrations. The NOEC was reported as a loading rate of 100 mg/L and the LC50 was reported as loading rate of > 100 mg/L.