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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted according to a modified OECD guideline, no mention of GLP and no analytical monitoring.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2004
Report date:
2004

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: Lokke and van Gestel 1998
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: OECD 207(Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
see below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The test reduced moisture content of soil respect to the OECD guideline, 15-20% rather than 20-30%, but the authors of the report thought that this would make no difference to the survival of organisms due to the short duration of the test.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:
soil

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Tetradecanol
EC Number:
204-000-3
EC Name:
Tetradecanol
Cas Number:
112-72-1
IUPAC Name:
112-72-1
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
tetradecanol
IUPAC Name:
tetradecanol
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): tetradecanol - C14

- Physical state: white, semi-solid

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
no

Test substrate

Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil: sand spike. This involved adding an appropriate amount of compound to analar grade acetone to form a stock solution for the 1000 mg/kg dose. Aliquots of the stock solution were then diluted with acetone to prepare lower doses. Acetone solutions were added to silica sand in glass jars. Mixtures were mixed thoroughly with a stainless steel spatula. The acetone was left to evaporate in a fume cupboard, leaving the test item coated onto the sand. Appropriate amount of moist soil was added to each of the glass jars. The dosed or undosed sand was incorporated into the bulk of the soil using a paletted knife. Jars were then sealed with screw top lids containing aluminium foil inserts and tumbled overnight (ca. 16 h) on a rotary soil tumbler 50 rpm.

- Controls: One aliquot of sand was dosed with acetone only to serve as solvent control. A jar with an aliquot of sand only served as untreated control - both with the appropriate amount of moist soil added thereafter.

- Chemical name of vehicle: acetone

- Concentration of vehicle in test medium: acetone solutions was added between 1-7 ml to 5-35g of silica sand. The sand was left to evaporate the acetone completely before initial exposure, so that the concentration of vehicle would be negligible.

- Evaporation of vehicle before use: yes

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Folsomia candida
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM

- Common name: springtail

- Source: Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, UK

- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): 10-12 days old

ACCLIMATION

- Acclimation period: not specified.

- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): similar to test

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
7 d

Test conditions

Test temperature:
range: 17.7 to 20 deg C
pH (if soil or dung study):
5.4.
Photoperiod and lighting:
16/8 hour daylight/darkness regime
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Test container (material, size): 120 ml clear glass powder jars, sealed with a screw top lid

- Amount of soil or substrate: 30 g wet weight soil

- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10

- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3

- No. of replicates per control: 3

- No. of replicates per vehicle control: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE

- Geographic location: Heath Farm, Leicester Lane, LandLook (Midlands), Leamington Spa, from Dr Graham Beard. OS map reference 32896926.

- Pesticide use history at the collection site: assumed to be pesticide free, as the field the soil was taken from land that had been set aside for 3-4 years.

- Collection procedures: the soil was sieved to 2 mm.

- Sampling depth (cm): 5-20cm to avoid surface root mat

- Soil texture

- % sand: 63.8%-64.8%

- Soil classification: sandy loam soil. The soil is described as soil series, Bomsgrove, standard soil number 33, variant.

- Organic carbon (%): 1.3%

- Maximum water holding capacity: ca. 40%

- Pretreatment of soil: the soil was treated with gamma radiation (27 KGy) in order to kill the indigenous nematodes and potential predators. However observation from extracted fresh soil indicated that interference from the indigenous population was likely to be insignificant. Consequently, the definitive test was carried out using unsterilised soil.

- Storage: stored in closed black plastic bags at 4 degC until required.


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mortality (immobilisation) at the end of the test


VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes


TEST CONCENTRATIONS

- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 3

- Range finding study

- Test concentrations: 10, 100, 100 mg/kg

- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: 7d EC50 100-100 mg/kg
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 0, 300, 1000 mg/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
dimethoate

Results and discussion

Effect concentrations
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
530 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: immobility
Remarks on result:
other: (420-660)
Details on results:
- Mortality at end of exposure period: 100% at the highest concentration tested. See Table 1 for details.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes

- Relevant effect levels: EC50 3.1 mg/kg

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1. Summary of findings.

 Dose (mg/kg dw soil)    Number of F. candida      % effect    
 live  dead/missing
Control         10  0  0
10   0  0
 10  0  0
 Acetone control        10  0 0
 9  1  10
10  0  0
 300        8  2  20
 7  3  30
 10  0  0
 1000        0  10  100
 2  8  80
 2  8  80

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
A 7 d EC50 value of 530 mg/kg dw soil has been determined for the effects of tetradecanol on population numbers of the springtail F. candida.

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