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EC number: 292-962-5
CAS number: 91031-58-2
No data available. Considering all relevant information available, toxicity to terrestrial arthropods is not expected.
In accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, Annex X, Column
2, 9.4 further studies on the effects on terrestrial organisms do not
have to be conducted since the chemical safety assessment indicates that
there is no need. The terrestrial toxicity of short chain fatty acid
esters has been tested on the earth worm Eisenia fetida with the test
substance isopropyl myristate (CAS No. 110-27-0). No mortality was
observed during the 14-day exposure period at the test concentration of
20,000 mg/kg. Additionally, data is available on tests with terrestrial
plants for the substance Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsaturated,
2-ethylhexyl esters (CAS No. 85049-37-2). The 21-day NOEC value was 100
mg/kg for all plants tested, and EC50 values between 390 and 600 mg/kg
Based on the available data, the terrestrial toxicity of short
chain fatty acid esters is very low. Additionally, the substances are
not expected to remain in the terrestrial environment, due to ready
biodegradation. Bioaccumulation is not likely due to rapid metabolism.
Esters of primary alcohols, containing from 1 to 18 carbon atoms, with
fatty acids, containing from 2 to 18 carbon atoms, are hydrolysed by
pancreatic lipases. Measured rates of enzyme catalysed hydrolysis varied
between 2 and 5 µeq/min/mg enzyme for the different chain lengths
(Mattson and Volpenhein, 1972; and references therein). The resulting
free fatty acids and alcohols are absorbed from the intestine into the
blood stream. Fatty acids are either metabolised via the beta-oxidation
pathway in order to generate energy for the cell or reconstituted into
glyceride esters and stored in the fat depots in the body. The alcohols
are metabolised primarily in the liver through a series of oxidative
steps, finally yielding carbon dioxide (Berg et al., 2002; HSDB).
Available literature reports that the main route of excretion in
rats is expected to be by expired air as CO2. The second route of
excretion is expected to be by biliary excretion and the feces.
Exemplarily, experimental data of ethyl oleate (is the ethyl ester of
oleic acid) provided this assumption: 14C-labeled carbon of 5 mL/kg of
ethyl oleate (CAS No. 111-62-6) was rapidly excreted in respiration CO2
(approximately 70%), faeces (7 -10%), and urine (1-2%), with essentially
complete elimination by 72 hours after administration (Bookstaff, 2003).
Based on this information, toxicity to terrestrial arthropods is
not expected to be of concern, and consequently, no further testing is
Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L. and Stryer, L., 2002, Biochemistry, 5thedition,
W.H. Freeman and Company
Bookstaff, R.C, Pai Bir, S., Bharaj, S.S., Kelm, G.R., Kulick,
R.M., Balm, T.K., Murray, J.V. (2003) The safety of the use of ethyl
oleate in food is supported by metabolism data in rats and clinical
safety data in humans, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 37,
Mattson, F.H. and Volpenheim, R.A. (1972): Relative rates of
hydrolysis by rat pancreatic lipase of esters of C2-C18 fatty acids with
C1-C18 primary n-alcohols,Journal of Lipid Research, 10, 1969
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