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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1984
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
This experimentally robust study involving 90 chemical species demonstrated the unpredictability of chemical toxicity to different animal species. However, whilst the methodology is robust, the 'dosage' is presented interms of concentration in a given area of substrate, and, whilst useful for comparative purposes, does not give usable data for risk characterisation purposes.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Relative Toxicities of Chemicals to the Earthworm Eisenia foetida.
Author:
Roberts, B.L., H.W. Dorough.
Year:
1984
Bibliographic source:
Environ Toxicol Chem 3(1):67-78.

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The study evaluated the toxicity to ethanol (and a large number of other chemicals) against earthworms by exposing them to concentrations of the chemical in a paper lined glass vial for 48 hours in the dark. The paper was dosed with the test substance before placing in the vial. Results expressed in quantity per unit area of the paper insert.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Ethanol
EC Number:
200-578-6
EC Name:
Ethanol
Cas Number:
64-17-5
Molecular formula:
C2H6O
IUPAC Name:
ethanol
Details on test material:
- Analytical purity: All chemicals tested in this study were of either technicalor analytical grade.

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
no

Test substrate

Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of application to filter paper (if used): 1ml of aqueous solution of ethanol applied to the filter paper strip before placing in the tube. Concentration calculated to give appropriate dosing required (in this case
- Soil not used
- Controls: Yes
- Chemical name of vehicle: water
- Concentration of test substance in vehicle: 6.5mg/l to 65g/l to give an equivalent of 0.1 - 1000ug/cm2
- Evaporation of vehicle before use: No

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Source: Bert's Bait Farm, Irvine KY.
- Weight at test initiation: Mature worms with developed clitellum, weighing 370 to 450 mg were selected for exposure to test substances.
- Feeding: Cornmeal was added as an additional food source and calcium carbonate was added to prevent pH falling below 5.5.
- Housing: Nalgene boxes filled with moist peat moss and rabbit manure

OTHER:
- Temperature: 18 deg C.

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
filter paper
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks:
Dark exposure

Test conditions

Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): Glass shell vials (22 mm x 85 mm) were lined with Whatman No. 1 filter paper strips (9.5 x 6.8 cm = 65cm2) and placed in cardboard scintillation vial trays. Chemical concentrations were expressed in microg/cm^2.

TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size):
- Amount of soil or substrate:
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10. 100 used in total per concentration measured when split over replicates
- No. of replicates per treatment group: Replicates used but number not specified.

NO SOIL USED

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: Continual darkness

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Death as indicated by lack of response to gentle probing.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: yes, plain water

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: logarithmic (decadic), 5 concentrations used over range 0.1 to 1000ug/cm2 substance loading on filter paper.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Remarks:
but 90 other solvents and pesticides also tested in study.

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 - < 1 000 other: microgram/cm^2 filter paper
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: calculated
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.1 - < 1 mg/cm²
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: calculated
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50 was determined by the Litchfield-Wilcoxon log dose-effect probit transformation method.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Regarded as moderately toxic (LC50 <1000 mg/square cm) in this test by the authors.
Executive summary:

In a study designed to evaluate the toxicity of ethanol (and a large number of other chemicals) to terrestrial macro-organisms, the earthworm Eisenia foetida was exposed to concentrations of the chemical loaded on to a filter paper lining a glass vial for 48 hours in the dark. The paper was dosed with the test substance before placing in the vial in the tube. Results were expressed in quantity per unit area of the paper insert and the result for ethanol was an LC50 of between 0.1 and 1.0mg/cm2. It is impossible to calculate this as a toxicity per kg of soil as the latter was not used in the study.