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Toxicological information

Dermal absorption

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
dermal absorption in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
HERA report on Alcohol Sulphates
Author:
A.I.S.E. and Cefic
Year:
2002
Bibliographic source:
http://www.heraproject.com/files/3-HH-04- HERA AS HH web wd.pdf

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
No guideline exists for this type of appraisal.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium dodecyl sulphate
EC Number:
205-788-1
EC Name:
Sodium dodecyl sulphate
Cas Number:
151-21-3
Molecular formula:
C12H26O4S.Na
IUPAC Name:
sodium dodecyl sulfate
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
erythromycin salt of hexadecylsulfate
IUPAC Name:
erythromycin salt of hexadecylsulfate
Test material form:
not specified
Radiolabelling:
other: partly

Test animals

Species:
guinea pig
Strain:
not specified
Sex:
not specified
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
1. Dermal penetration of 14 C-labeled C 12 ASO4 Na (sodium lauryl sulfate) in guinea pigs amounted to 0.35 % of the applied
dose of 3 µmol. This value was obtained by comparison of the total amount excreted after i.p. or dermal application of the compound.

Administration / exposure

Type of coverage:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified

Results and discussion

Absorption in different matrices:
Absorption by the percutaneous route is limited, however, since anionic surfactants tend to bind to the skin surface (Howes, 1975; Black and Howes, 1980). Early studies with isolated human skin were unable to detect penetration of a homologous series of AS, ranging from C8 to C18 (Blank and Gould, 1961). Animal studies confirmed a low level of percutaneous absorption of AS. Less than 0.4% of a 3 µmol dose of 35S-labeled C12AS-Na was percutaneously absorbed in guinea pigs, based on recovery of the radiolabel in urine, faeces and expired air (Prottey and Ferguson, 1975). Studies with rats indicated that pre-washing of the skin with surfactant enhanced AS skin penetration (Black and Howes, 1980).
For consumer exposure, actual dermal absorption is below 1% (Rice, 1977) or very low (Schäfer and Redelmeier, 1996). Taking into account read across uncertainties a default assumption of 10% dermal absorption was taken for deriving the DNEL. Since the dermal absorption decreases with increasing concentration of a solution this percentage can be expanded to workers as a worst case approach.

Applicant's summary and conclusion