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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Acute Toxicity: inhalation

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Administrative data

acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Not reported
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This study is classified as reliable with restrictions because although the study was not GLP compliant, it appears that the study methods used are similar to OECD guidelines.

Data source

Reference Type:
study report

Materials and methods

Test guideline
equivalent or similar to guideline
OECD Guideline 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity)
Study was performed prior to adoption of the test guideline specified.
GLP compliance:
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Details on test material:
This substance is very similar with regard to health endpoints to the substance being registered.
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 1-Hexadecene
- Substance type: C16 alpha olefin
- Physical state: Liquid
- Analytical purity: 98.5%
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): 1.5% saturates
- Lot/batch No: Not reported

Test animals

Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Weight at study initiation: ranged from 209 to 299 grams

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
whole body
other: unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on inhalation exposure:
- Exposure apparatus: Exposure chamber
- Source and rate of air: 2 L/min (air obtained from outside of chamber)
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: Deutrabande nebuliser within the exposure chamber and passing an air line and olefin feed line to it from outside the chamber.
- Method of particle size determination: Specifications for aerosol generator indicates that it produces particles no larger than 8 microns in diameter
- Brief description of analytical method used: Rats exposed to very heavy mist of 1-hexadecene for 1 hour in an enclosed chamber. Visibility through the chamber (12 inches in diameter) was impossible; estimated visibility only 3 inches.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: No

Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
not specified
Duration of exposure:
ca. 1 h
Exposure concentrations of 1-hexadecene (particles size < 8 microns) were estimated to be 8500 mg/m3.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Not reported
Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing: Not reported
- Necropsy of survivors performed: Yes
- Other examinations performed: Clinical signs and body weights were recorded.
No data reported.

Results and discussion

Effect levels
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
> 8 500 mg/m³ air
Remarks on result:
other: An LC50 value for hexadec-1-ene was not reported. However, it can be inferred from the reported results that the LC50 for hexadec-1-ene exceeds 8500 mg/m3 in male rats.
No mortality was observed during the study.
Clinical signs:
other: Rats exhibited a drowsy appearance and oily fur following removal from the exposure chamber.
Body weight:
The study report states that there were no significant weight changes observed during the study. Supporting raw data was not provided in the report.
Gross pathology:
The study report states that there were no significant gross pathological changes observed during necropsy. Supporting raw data was not provided in the report.
Other findings:
No data reported.

Any other information on results incl. tables

No tables included based on negative findings and absence of supporting data.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Category 5 based on GHS criteria
Migrated information
The study report does not report a LC50 value for 1-hexadecene. Drowsiness and oily fur were the only reported clinical signs of exposure. However, it can be inferred from the reported results that the LC50 for 1-hexadecene exceeds 8500 mg/m3 in male rats.
Executive summary:

Justification for Read Across

Several criteria justify the use of the read across approach to fill data gaps for Category C substances using Category A substances analogues. Category C is comprised of isomerised olefins while Category A is comprised of alpha olefins.  Studies indicate that changing the carbon number, the location of the double bond, or adding branching does not measurably alter the mammalian health endpoints. Toxicity concerns are low for alpha olefins for acute oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure. These materials are irritating to the skin of rabbits. In repeated dose oral toxicity studies, 1-hexene and 1-tetradecene have shown comparable levels of low toxicity. Female rats have exhibited alterations in body and organ weights and changes in certain hematological values at the higher doses tested and male rats have exhibited kidney damage that is most likely associated with the alpha2u-globulin protein. Screening studies indicate that 1-hexene and 1-tetradecene are not neurotoxic and do not produce adverse effects on reproduction or fetal development. Screening studies also indicate that 1-hexene, 1-octene, 1-decene, 1-dodecene, and 1 -tetradecene are not genotoxic. As a result, the weight of evidence from all of the above mammalian toxicity endpoint studies strongly suggest a low hazard potential for human health. Since the addition of branching does not measurably alter the results of studies on mammalian health endpoints, it is unlikey that there are significant toxicological differences between substances in Categories C and A.  Therefore, read across between these two categories can be justified. 

In an acute inhalation toxicity study, groups of male Wistar rats (number of animals not specified) were exposed via inhalation to 1 -hexadecene for 1 hour at an estimated aerosol mist concentration of 8500 mg/m3 (particle size less than 8.0 microns). The rats were observed for 14 days post-exposure., The rats exhibited a drowsy appearance on removal from the chamber and the fur of all animals tested was oily due to deposition of particles. No mortality, significant change in body weight or gross pathological change post autopsy was observed at the end of the 14-day observation period. Although an LC50 was not reported, it can be inferred from the reported results that the LC50 for 1-hexadecene exceeds 8500 mg/m3 for male rats.

This study received a Klimisch score of 2 and is classified as reliable with restrictions because although the study was not GLP compliant, it appears that the study methods used are similar to OECD guidelines. This study will influence the DNEL(s).