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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

short-term repeated dose toxicity: dermal
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
a short-term toxicity study does not need to be conducted because a reliable sub-chronic (90 days) or chronic toxicity study is available, conducted with an appropriate species, dosage, solvent and route of administration
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
data waiving: supporting information
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Version / remarks:
GLP compliance:
not specified
not specified in the publication
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Producer: NanoAmor Co, Ltd
Crystallinity: α form
Primary particle size: 60 nm
hydrodynamic size: 117.9 ± 78.0 nm
zeta potential: 13.6 mV
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
Dose / conc.:
250 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
500 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
12 per group
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The changes of serum biochemical parameters in the Fe2O3 nanoparticle groups were sporadic and were of a small magnitude, indicating that these differences were not considered dose-related adverse effects of the nanoparticle treatments.
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not specified
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
not examined
Key result
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
> 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
Remarks on result:
other: The authors stated that the subchronic oral dosing with Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed no systemic toxicity to rats. The NOAEL was established to be greater than 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested in rats receiving Fe2O3 nanoparticles by gavage.
Key result
Critical effects observed:
In the current repeated dose toxicity study, iron oxide red in water was administered via gavage to groups of 12 female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bw/day. The administration occurred daily for a 13-week period.

Fe2O3 nanoparticles had no significant effects on body weight, mean daily food and water consumption, when compared with control groups. There were no treatment-related changes in haematological, serum biochemical parameters or histopathological observations. Some changes in organ weights were observed: decreases in weight of pituitary gland and liver and increases in weight of adrenal gland and testis. According to the authors, ‘these changes were sporadic without dose-dependent trends, indicating that they were not considered toxicologically relevant’. In blood and all tissues tested, including liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain, the concentration of Fe showed no dose-associated response in comparison to the control groups. Iron concentrations in the urine of Fe2O3 nanoparticle-treated rats showed no significant differences compared to those of control animals. Although not statistically significant, the concentrations of Fe in the faeces of treated animals were found to be higher than those of the control groups. The authors stated that the subchronic oral dosing with Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed no systemic toxicity to rats. The NOAEL was established to be greater than 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested in rats receiving Fe2O3 nanoparticles by gavage.

Data source

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion