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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: terrestrial

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Description of key information

Bioaccumulation in the terrestrial food chain is considered to be unlikely based on the ready biodegradability of 2-butyloctanol in the environment. It is concluded that given the very close similarity between C6-C22 LCAs and C12 LCAs (both linear and Guerbet) as well as similar physico-chemical properties and structure, it is fully expected that 2-butyloctanol will be readily biodegradable. Indirect exposure of terrestrial organisms is not expected as rapid biodegradability means 2-butyloctanol will be biodegraded within the STP process and as a consequence a transfer to the soil compartment via STP effluent is not expected. 2-Butyloctanol will not be directly applied to soils and as such, direct exposure to soil organisms is not expected. Therefore, no bioaccumulation tests on terrestrial organisms are provided.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

According to REACH Annex IX, bioaccumulation information in aquatic species is required for substances manufactured or imported in quantities of 100 t/y or more. However, the endpoint for terrestrial organisms is waived based on the following evidence:

Unlikely Direct and Indirect Exposure

Read-across from Guerbet Alcohols and LCA categories has been used to meet the data gap for the 2-butyloctanol bioaccumulation endpoint, as described in the ‘Read Across Justification Document’ section 13.

A ready biodegradation study by Federle (2009) tested 10 linear primary alcohols from butanol (C4) to docosanol (C22) and concluded that all 10 LCAs are readily biodegradable and satisfy the 10-day criterion. The OECD SIDS report of the LCA category concluded that alcohols with carbon chains up to C16 showed pass levels for ready biodegradation were reached within the 10-day window. Other studies by Richterich (1998a and b), Belanger et al (2009) and Federle and Ittrich (2006) all reported rapid biodegradation in LCAs.

It is concluded that given the very close similarity between C6-C22 LCAs and C12 LCAs (both linear and Guerbet) as well as similar physico-chemical properties and structure, it is fully expected that the C12 LCA, 2-butyloctanol will be readily biodegradable. Indirect exposure of terrestrial organisms is not expected as rapid biodegradability means 2-butyloctanol will be biodegraded within the STP process and as a consequence a transfer to the soil compartment via STP effluent is not expected. 2-Butyloctanol will not be directly applied to soils and as such, direct exposure to soil organisms is not expected. Therefore, no bioaccumulation tests on terrestrial organisms are provided.