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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
ongoing study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2021

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 413 (90-Day (Subchronic) Inhalation Toxicity Study
Version / remarks:
2018-06-25
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Ophthalmology not performed (this endpoint is not sensitive in particle studies); urine analysis not performed (endpoint optional only in guideline)
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Manganese alumina pink corundum
EC Number:
269-061-0
EC Name:
Manganese alumina pink corundum
Cas Number:
68186-99-2
Molecular formula:
Mn(x)Al(2-x)O3 0,01≤x≤0,25
IUPAC Name:
Manganese alumina pink corundum
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
Details on test material:
- Chemical description: Manganese Alumina Pink Corundum
- Substance type: inorganic pigment
- Physical state: solid, pink powder, odourless, Hematite-corundum structure
- Storage condition of test material: at room temperature

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Crl:WI (Han)
Details on species / strain selection:
Wistar rats are commonly used in subchronic and chronic inhalation toxicity studies. They fulfil the criteria stated by a U.S. EPA Workshop (Vu et al., 1996)* such as (i) a low background rate of neoplasia, (ii) a low background rate of pulmonary disease, (iii) longevity, and (iv) a history of laboratory use.

*References:
- Vu, V., Barrett, J.C, Roycroft, J., Schuman, L., Dankovic, D., 1996. Workshop report: Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles. Reg Tox Pharm 24, 202-212.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Deutschland (Sulzfeld, Germany)
- Females nulliparous and non-pregnant: yes
- Age at study initiation: approx. 8 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: approx. 250 g for males and approx. 175 g for females
- Housing: housed in Makrolon (polycarbonate) cages type III with softwood (‘ssniff KB 8-15’) bedding material.
- Diet: commercial chow in pellet form (ssniff “V1534”) purchased from ssniff Spezialdiäten GmbH (Soest, Germany); ad libitum
- Water: tap water; ad libitum
- Acclimation period: Approx. one week the animals will be allowed to adjust and become acclimatised to the Fraunhofer ITEM environment. During the 2-3 weeks prior exposure start, all rats will be trained to the 6-hour restraint in nose-only tubes.

DETAILS OF FOOD AND WATER QUALITY:

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 22 ± 2°C
- Humidity: 55% ± 15%
- Air changes (per hr):
- Photoperiod: 12 hrs dark / 12 hrs light

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
inhalation: aerosol
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
air
Details on inhalation exposure:
GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: flow-past nose-only inhalation exposure system
- Method of holding animals in test chamber: restrain tubes with a flexible stopper
- System of generating particulates/aerosols: The particulate sample aerosols were generated by dry dispersion with pressurized air. Cyclones (in line) were used to reduce the coarse moiety of the aerosol. For each nose-only exposure unit, the aerosol was generated by a high-pressure pneumatic disperser. The disperser was fed with the test/reference items under computerized control, i.e. with a feed back loop to the actual aerosol concentrations measured by an aerosol photometer. The photometer gives a scattering light signal which is proportional to the particle concentration, if the particle size distribution is constant. The ratio between photometer signal and concentration was determined throughout the study by comparing to gravimetric concentrations.
- Temperature, humidity, pressure in air chamber: Parameters were recorded by 20-minute means The were set at 22°C + 2°C for temperature and 55% + 15% for relative humidity.
- Air flow rate: 1 L/min
- Air change rate:
- Method of particle size determination: mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was determined 2-3 times using a cascade impactor (Marple impactor)
- Treatment of exhaust air: exhaled air is drawn off immediately by a cylinder surrounding the aerosol delivery cylinder

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: Filter samples of the aerosols were taken daily to control the aerosol concentrations and to calibrate the aerosol photometers. The means are close to the target concentrations.
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
see above ("Details on inhalation exposure")
Duration of treatment / exposure:
13 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
6 hours/day, 5 days/week
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
0.4 mg/m³ air (nominal)
Remarks:
0.03 mg/lung (calculated total dose)
Dose / conc.:
1.5 mg/m³ air (nominal)
Remarks:
0.125 mg/lung (calculated total dose)
Dose / conc.:
6 mg/m³ air (analytical)
Remarks:
1.0 mg/lung (calculated total dose)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10+5 males and 10 females (1 day recovery); 5 males (28 days recovery); 5 males and females (90 days recovery) (total: 100 males and 60 females)
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: The concentrations were defined based on the preceding intratracheal instillation dose range finding (DRF A) study (Fraunhofer ITEM no. 02 N 20 502).
- Post-exposure recovery period: 1, 28, and 90 days

For the nominal aerosol concentrations of 0.4, 1.5 and 6 mg/m³ the test item deposition in the respiratory tract was modeled using the MPPD model (version 3.04), resulting in a deposited fraction of 4.5% (rel. density=4, MMAD/GSD=1.8µm/1.5).
This deposited fraction was used to calculate the total deposited mass, using the following input parameters:
Morphometry: Semi-symmetric Long Evans
Example for deposited mass at 0.4 mg/m³: 0.2 l minute breathing volume x 360 min exposure/day x 65 exposure days x 0.4 mg/m³ x 4.7% = 0.03 mg/lung
Example for deposited mass at 1.5 mg/m³: 0.2 l minute breathing volume x 360 min exposure/day x 65 exposure days x 1.5 mg/m³ x 4.7% = 0.125 mg/lung
Example for deposited mass at 6 mg/m³: 0.2 l minute breathing volume x 360 min exposure/day x 65 exposure days x 6 mg/m³ x 4.7% = 1.0 mg/lung
Positive control:
none

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: at least twice a day (with the exception of weekends and public holidays: once daily)

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: before sacrifice

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: 1 day before treatment and twice a week in the first 4 and once a week thereafter throughout the study for all animals

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study):
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: No
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: 1 day after the 90-day exposure period
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: No
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals: 10 animals per sex and dose group
- Parameters examined: red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT), reticulocytes (RET), mean cell volume (MCV), mean haemoglobin/erythrocyte (MCH), mean haemoglobin concentration/erythrocyte (MCHC), prothrombin time (PT), thromboplastin time (TP), total white blood cells (WBC), differential white cell count (% and absolute), platelets (PTL)

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: 1 day after the 90-day exposure period
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals: 10 animals per sex and dose group
- Parameters examined: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urea, triglycerides, total bilirubin, creatinine (CREA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB), ALB/GLB, glucose (GLUC), cholesterol (CHOL), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), phosphorous (P), chloride (CL)
URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

IMMUNOLOGY: No

BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF): Yes
- Time schedule for analysis: 1 and 90 days post-exposure
- Dose groups that were examined: all
- Number of animals: 5 (90 days post-exposure) - 10 (1 day post-exposure) per sex and dose group
- Parameters examined: total cell count, differential cell count (macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes; a total of 400 leukocytes per rat were evaluated), LDH, β-glucuronidase, and total protein

LUNG BURDEN: Yes
- Time schedule for analysis: 1, 28, and 90 after the 90-day exposure period
- Dose groups that were examined: all
- Number of animals: 5 male rats
Sacrifice and pathology:
- rats were sacrificed 1, 28, and 90 days after the 90-day exposure period
- macroscopic examination: all animals were subjected to a complete necropsy
- organ weights were determined for the following organs: liver, kidneys, adrenals, testes, epididymides, ovaries, uterus, thymus, spleen, brain, lung, and heart
- tissues preserved and fixed: aorta, bone marrow (and/or fresh aspirate), brain (including sections of cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla/pons), caecum, coagulating glands, colon, duodenum, epididymides, femur and stifle joint, heart, ileum, jejunum, kidneys, larynx (3 levels incl. the base of the epiglottis), liver, lung (left lobe at three levels, including main bronchi), lymph nodes from the hilar region of the lung, lymph nodes (distal from the portal-of-entry), mammary gland (males and females), muscle (thigh), nasopharyngeal tissues (at least 4 levels; 1 level to include the nasopharyngeal duct and the Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT)), oesophagus, olfactory bulb, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroids, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial), pituitary, prostate, rectum, salivary glands, skin, spinal cord (cervical- mid-thoracic, and lumbar), spleen, sternum, stomach, teeth, testes, thymus, thyroid, trachea (at least two levels incl. 1 longitudinal section through the carina and 1 transverse section), urinary bladder, uterus, vagina, all gross lesions and masses.
- All organs were preserved and fixed in formalin at day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Histopathology will be performed in 10 animals per sex of the control and high dose group at day 1 post-exposure.
Statistics:
Differences between groups will be considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Data will be analysed using analysis of variance. If the group means differ significantly by the analysis of variance, the means of the treated groups will be compared with the means of the control groups using Dunnett’s test. The statistical evaluation of the histopathological findings will be done with the two-tailed Fisher test by the PROVANTIS system.

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Description (incidence and severity):
Interim results of the ongoing study are attached under "attached background material"
Description (incidence and severity):
Interim results of the ongoing study are attached under "attached background material"

Effect levels

Remarks on result:
other: ongoing study

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The measures implemented during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic lead to a delay in laboratory capacities and delays in the study conduct (see also the attached documentation under "Attached justification"). Due to this, the study was started in February 2021 with an anticipated completion date in November 2021. In order to document the ongoing study, interim results on body weight and food consumption are attached as background material. The missing information will be added to the robust study summary upon availability and without undue delay.