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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Physical & Chemical properties

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

The UVCB substance is an inorganic, complex metal containing material.


Intermediate B8 - Slags, Copper Refining


“Substance produced at high temperature in a liquid state, by melting mixtures of metal oxides and non-ferrous metals (from primary sources such as copper ores, matte, or anodes) or by oxidizing metals (from copper rich materials such as metals, alloys or metal oxides). Slag from copper refining contains relatively high amounts of copper oxides, and various amounts of other non-ferrous metals oxides”


EC names


Substances covered

EC number/ EINECS No.


Slags, copper refining*

Slags from copper refining



Slags, copper converter*





At room temperature, the substance is a solid.


The majority of the available data on physical and chemical properties of the UVCB is taken from the report Liippo, et al, 2010 –a comprehensive study performed on the UVCB to characterize it (physico-chemical and mineralogical properties) in view of the upcoming REACH registrations of copper intermediates by the REACH Copper Consortium.


 In particular, a comprehensive chemical and mineralogical characterization of representative samples was performed (and reported under IUCLID 4.23). The study from Liippo et al (Outotec Lab)furthermore includes thermo gravimetric /differential scanning calorimetric (TG/DSC) measurements (under Air flux and Nitrogen atmosphere) that allowed determining melting, oxidation and related thermal stability properties of the UVCB.

The Outotec study included: Chemical assays (Inductively coupled argon plasma optic emission spectrometer, sulfur and carbon analyzes, Measurement of amount of magnetic material), Granulometry, density and specific surface measurements, determination of melting and oxidation temperatures (Thermogravimetry / differential scanning calorimetry), Water solubility tests, Mineralogical characterization (X-ray Diffraction, Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy) and Mineral Quantification. Based on the tests results, the study furthermore includes expert judgements addressing flammable, self-ignition, explosive and oxidising properties of the materials.


The selection and collection of the representative samples was made based on expert knowledge and according to standardized sampling protocols developed by the REACH Copper Consortium, an industry joint-venture regrouping major manufacturing and importing companies of the UVCB substance. Details on the sampling approach and the representative samples are reported as supporting information in IUCLID 1.4 and 4.1.


For a number of physic chemical properties, a range of values are provided to cover the variability among representative samples, if appropriate. The relevant physico-chemical properties of the materials (as well as IUCLID sections) are summarised below:

Table 1: Summary of the results

ECI Comments / Remarks IUCLID Section copper-rich slag from Secondary smelter Cu-rich slag, from slag concentrator, primary smelter (representative, homogenized) Cu-rich slag from anode furnace, primary smelter (representative, homogenized) Cu-rich slag from FSF, primary smelter (representative, homogenized)
Lab code   09TT03335 09TT03987 09TT05247 09TT05248
State / Colour 4.1 Solid,Brownish grey Solid, Greenish grey Solid, Brownish grey Solid,Black
Relative Density g/m3 4.4 5.04 5.57 4.8 3.8
Specific surface area 4.5 0.4 1.97 0.13 0.06
Granulometry, D50, µm 4.5 40 29 1552 2319
Water solubility 4.8 poor* poor* poor* poor*
Melting temperature,°C 4.2 738 °C  1102 °C  1044 °C  1051 °C
Oxidation Temperature,°C 4.15 No 455 °C No No
Assays / Chemistry 4.23 See table See table See table See table
Mineralogy 4.23 See table See table See table See table
Flammability 4.13 No No No No
Self-ignition  4.12 No No No No
Explosive properties 4.14 No No No No
Oxidizing properties 4.15 No No No No
Relative Density, OECD 109; specific surface area, BET method; water solubility,OECD 105; melting and oxidation temperature TG/DSC analysis*poor (insoluble) in preliminary test, with exception at high loading and shaking over long period