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Diss Factsheets

Administrative data

developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
14 October 2012 to 07 December 2012 (end of in-life phase)
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
other: OECD 422
Minor deviations occurred. The study integrity was not adversely affected by the deviations.
GLP compliance:
Limit test:

Test material

Test material form:
liquid: viscous
Details on test material:
Description: Clear amber slightly viscous liquid
Batch: 18515
Purity/Composition: UVCB tested as 100% pure

Test animals

Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
Source F0: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany.
Age at start F0-treatment: Approximately 11 weeks.
Number of F0-animals: 40 females and 40 males.
Acclimatization F0: At least 5 days prior to start of treatment.
Health inspection F0: Upon receipt of the animals.
Identification F0: Earmark and tattoo.
Randomization F0: Prior to commencement of treatment, by computer-generated random algorithm according to body weight, with all animals within ± 20% of the sex mean.

Environmental controls for the animal room were set to maintain 18 to 24°C, a relative humidity of 40 to 70%, approximately 15 room air changes/hour, and a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle. Any variations to these conditions were maintained in the raw data and had no effect on the outcome of the study.

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
Method: Oral gavage, using a plastic feeding tube. Formulations were placed on a magnetic stirrer during dosing.

Dose volume: Dose volume (mL/kg body weight) were calculated as follows:
Dose level (g/kg) / density (g/mL). Actual dose volumes were calculated according to the latest body weight.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Analyses were conducted according to a validated method. These analyses were conducted after the in-life phase as no suitable analytical method was available at an earlier stage. Samples of formulations were analyzed for homogeneity (highest and lowest concentration) and accuracy of preparation (all concentrations). Stability in vehicle over 6 hours at room temperature was also determined (highest and lowest concentration).

The accuracy of preparation was considered acceptable if the mean measured concentrations were 85-115% of the target concentration. Homogeneity was demonstrated if the coefficient of variation was ≤ 10%. Formulations were considered stable if the relative difference before and after storage was maximally 10%.
Details on mating procedure:
Following a minimum of 14 days of exposure for the males and females, one female was cohabitated with one male of the same treatment group, avoiding sibling mating. Detection of mating was confirmed by evidence of sperm in the vaginal lavage or by the appearance of an intravaginal copulatory plug. This day was designated Day 0 post-coitum. Once mating occurred, the males and females were separated. A maximum of 14 days was allowed for mating, after which females who had not shown evidence of mating were separated from their males.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were exposed for 29 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to the day prior to scheduled necropsy. Females were exposed for 40-54 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation (up to the day prior to scheduled necropsy). Female nos. 66 (Group 4) and 75 (Group 4) were not dosed during littering.
Frequency of treatment:
Once Daily, 7 days per week.
Duration of test:
Females and pups: 14 October 2012 07 December 2012 (end of in-life phase)
Males: 14 October 2012 12 November 2012 (end of in-life phase)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 per sex per dose level including control
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment


Maternal examinations:
Mortality / Viability:
At least twice daily. Animals showing pain, distress or discomfort, which was considered not transient in nature or was likely to become more severe, were sacrificed for humane reasons based on OECD guidance document on humane endpoints (ENV/JM/MONO/ 2000/7).

Clinical signs:
Daily detailed clinical observations were made in all animals immediately (0-15 min) after dosing. Once prior to start of treatment and at weekly intervals during the treatment period this was also performed outside the home cage in a standard arena.
The time of onset, grade and duration of any observed sign was recorded. Signs were graded for severity and the maximum grade was predefined at 3 or 4. Grades were coded as slight (grade 1), moderate (grade 2), severe (grade 3) and very severe (grade 4). For certain signs, only its presence (grade 1) or absence (grade 0) was scored. In the data tables, the scored grades were reported, as well as the percentage of animals affected in summary tables.
Ovaries and uterine content:
Pregnant females were examined to detect signs of difficult or prolonged parturition, and cage debris of pregnant females was examined to detect signs of abortion or premature birth.
Fetal examinations:
Each litter was examined to determine the following, if practically possible:

Mortality / Viability: The numbers of live and dead pups on Day 1 of lactation and daily thereafter were determined. If possible, defects or cause of death were evaluated.

Clinical signs: At least once daily, detailed clinical observations were made for all animals.

Body weights: Live pups were weighed on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.

Sex: Sex was determined for all pups on Days 1 and 4 of lactation.

The following statistical methods were used to analyze the data:
- If the variables could be assumed to follow a normal distribution, the Dunnett-test (Ref. 2; many-to-one t-test) based on a pooled variance estimate was applied for the comparison of the treated groups and the control groups for each sex.
- The Steel-test (Ref. 3; many-to-one rank test) was applied if the data could not be assumed to follow a normal distribution.
- The Fisher Exact-test (Ref. 4) was applied to frequency data.
see table attached.

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
No maternal toxicity was observed.

Effect levels (maternal animals)

Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
ca. 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
No embryotoxicity or teratogenic effects observed.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
ca. 1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: Developmental toxicity

Fetal abnormalities

not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Developmental toxicity was not observed.
For risk assessment purposes the high dose treatment of 1000 mg/kg/day was established as the NOAEL for Alkylated Naphthalene.
Executive summary:

A combined 28-day repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test was conducted with Alkylated Naphthalene in rats by oral gavage.

The study was based on the  OECD 422, Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, March 1996.

Rationale for dose levels

Based on the results of a 10-day dose range finding study, the dose levels for this combined 28-day oral gavage study with reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test were selected to be 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg.


Study outline

After acclimatization, four groups of ten male and ten female Wistar Han rats were exposed by oral gavage to the test substance at 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg.

Males were exposed for 29 days, i.e. 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination. Females were exposed for 40 - 54 days, i.e. during 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, duringpost-coitum, and during at least 4 days of lactation.


Evaluated parameters

The following observations and examinations were evaluated: mortality / viability, clinical signs (daily), functional observations and locomotor activity (end of treatment), body weight and food consumption (at least at weekly intervals), clinical pathology (end of treatment), macroscopy at termination, organ weights and histopathology on a selection of tissues, and reproduction/developmental parameters, consisting of mating, fertility and conception indices, precoital time, number of corpora lutea and implantation sites, gestation index and duration, parturition, maternal care, sex ratio and early postnatal pup development (mortality, clinical signs, body weights and macroscopy).



Parental results:

No parental toxicity was observed up to the highest dose level tested (1000 mg/kg).


Developmental results:

No developmental effects were observed up to the highest dose level tested (1000 mg/kg).




Treatment with Alkylated Naphthalene by oral gavage in male and female Wistar Han rats at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg revealed no parental toxicity or developmental toxicity up to the highest dose of 1000 mg/kg.


Based on these results, a parental and developmental No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of at least 1000 mg/kg was derived.