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Ecotoxicological information

Ecotoxicological Summary

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Hazard for aquatic organisms

Hazard for air

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Hazard for predators

Additional information

The UVCB is a complex inorganic metals containing substance. The physico-chemical characterization of the UVCB (see relevant section in IUCLID) demonstrates the presence of different metal species; intermetallic and metal sulphides which resulted in relatively high solubilisation potential in water for most of the metals present in the UVCB.

The UVCB is an intermediate, with a very limited life cycle (manufacturing and industrial uses only).Testing the UVCB is difficult because of the large uncertainty involved when selecting representative samples due to the variable elemental concentrations in the composition of the UVCB.Derivation of PNECs for the UVCB as such are therefore difficult to interpretbecause of the uncertainty related to the representativeness of the testing. Also, exposure to the UVCB cannot be measured or modelled because of the multi-constituent character of the UVCB. For these reasons,the UVCB environmental (hazard) assessment is driven by the assessment of the individual UVCB constituents.

For the purpose of the classification, the UVCB is treated as a complex metal containing substance with a number of discrete constituting compounds (metals, metal compounds, non-metal inorganic compounds). The hazard classifications of each compound are then factored into a combined classification of the UVCB as a whole. For environmental endpoints, additivity and/or summation algorithms are applied to quantitatively estimate the mixture’s toxicity to aquatic organisms.

For the purpose of the environmental (risk) assessment, the ecotoxicological information that was taken forward is based on all hazardous constituents of all relevant UVCBs at the site for which quantitative exposure and risk assessment was conducted. For the environment, most often, it is the metal ion that is the toxic driver (ECHA, 2008, R.7.13-2). Consequently, the PNECs expressed as metal ion are the relevant ones to forward to risk characterization. Considering the composition of this UVCB, full solubilisation of the emissions of the various constituting speciation in metals are assessed. The physical form (powder or massive) does not lead in this case to different release potential of the elements from the UVCB and consequently no different PNECs. When quantitative exposure and risk assessment were conducted on a metal constituent, the ecotoxicological information on this individual metal is reported in the respective summary sheet. The information is taken from the respective REACH IUCLID dossiers (see annex II of this CSR). More information on the scope of the UVCB assessment can be found in the CSR of the UVCB (Chapter 9).

 

Table36:Summary of the information on toxicological information for the purpose of riskassessment:

UVCB constituent

Variability in chemical composition

 

PNECs

 

Element

Speciation used for environmental risk assessment

Cu

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Ni

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Pb

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

As

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Zn

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Co

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Ag

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Sb

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Se, Te,

 

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary in IUCLID and table below

Ca, Fe, Na, Si, Sn

Metal ion

Hazard assumed as if UVCB consists of 100% worst-case speciation

See respective PNEC summary below

For the purpose of the risk assessment, the hazard conclusions and the metal-specific PNECs (Predicted No Effect Concentration) were collected for each environmental compartment. An overview of the relevant PNECs is given in the table below. PNEC for arsenic metal was not available. Consequently, one was derived based on arsenic oxide using molecular weight conversion. Elements for which no PNEC is reported inTable37have no relevant environmental hazards and for which there is no need to derive environmental threshold.

 

Table37:Overview of hazard conclusions - Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) takenforward for CSA of the UVCB

Protection target

Unit

Cu

Pb

As

Ni

Zn (added)***

Freshwater

μg/L

7.8

3.1

6.5

3.55

20.6

Marine water

μg/L

5.2

3.5

0.5

8.6

6.1

Freshwater sediment

mg/kgdw

87

174

64.8

69.2

235.6

Marine sediment

mg/kgdw

676

164

4.5

69.2

113

Soil

mg/kgdw

65

147

0.3

29.9

107

STP

μg/L

230

100

30.4

330

52

Secondary poisoning

mg/kg food

No hazard identified*

10.9

0.5

12.3

No hazard identified**

 

Protection target

Unit

Co

Sb

Se

Te

Ag

Freshwater

μg/L

0.6

113

2.67

5.79

0.04

Marine water

μg/L

2.36

11.3

2

0.579

0.86

Freshwater sediment

mg/kgdw

9.5

11.2

8.2

No exposure

438.13

Marine sediment

mg/kgdw

9.5

2.24

6.2

No exposure

438.13

Soil

mg/kgdw

10.9

37

0.1

No exposure

1.41

STP

μg/L

370

2,550

1,500

3.2

25

Secondary poisoning

mg/kg food

No hazard identified

Not needed

1

No potential for bioaccumulation

No or insufficient available at present

*Based on the copper risk assessment, it was concluded that secondary poisoning is not relevant. The main arguments are: Copper is an essential trace element, well regulated in all living organisms. Difference in copper uptake rates are related to essential needs, varying with the species, size, life stage, seasons... Copper homeostasic mechanisms are applicable across species with specific processes being active depending on the species, life stages…. The use of BAFs are therefore not adequate. There is overwhelming evidence to show the absence of copper biomagnification across the tropic chain in the aquatic and terrestrial food chains. Field evidence has further provided evidence on the mechanisms of action of copper in the aquatic and terrestrial environment and the absence of a need for concern for secondary poisoning.

**Based on the ICDZ data on bioaccumulation of zinc in animals and on biomagnification (i.e. accumulation and transfer through the food chain), it is concluded that secondary poisoning is considered to be not relevant in the effect assessment of zinc. Major decision points for this conclusion are the following. The accumulation of zinc, an essential element, is regulated in animals of several taxonomic groups, for example in molluscs, crustaceans, fish and mammals. In mammals, one of the two target species for secondary poisoning, both the absorption of zinc from the diet and the excretion of zinc, are regulated. This allows mammals, within certain limits, to maintain their total body zinc level (whole body homeostasis) and to maintain physiologically required levels of zinc in their various tissues, both at low and high dietary zinc intakes. The results of field studies, in which relatively small differences were found in the zinc levels of small mammals from control and polluted sites, are in accordance with the homeostatic mechanism. These data indicate that the bioaccumulation potential of zinc in both herbivorous and carnivorous mammals will be low. Based on the above data, secondary poisoning and the related issues bioaccumulation and biomagnification are not further discussed in this report (Zn RAR).

***Zinc PNEC values are 2 times higher (biavailability correction for sediment) or 3 times higher for PNEC soil.

Environmental classification justification

The UVCB is treated as a complex metal containing substance with a number of discrete constituting compounds (metals, metal compounds, non-metal inorganic compounds). The hazard classifications of each compound are then factored into a combined classification of the UVCB as a whole. The classification was derived using Meclas (MEtals CLASsification tool - see www.meclas.eu), a calculation tool that follows classification guidance and implementation in accordance to legal rules and technical guidance from ECHA and CLP. See IUCLID section 13 attachment for MeClas classification conclusions.

 

Table38:Summary of the information on ecotoxicological information for the purpose ofclassification

UVCB constituent

Variabiliy of elemental composition

Classification according each relevant endpoint

Element

Speciation* taken forward for Tier 1 classification

 

 

Ag

Ag massive

Maximum

Not classified

As

As compounds

Maximum

Harmonised classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

 

Ni As

 

Harmonised classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

Ca

Ca

Maximum

Not classified

Co

Co

Maximum

Harmonised classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

Cu

Cu massive

Maximum

Not classified

 

CuS

Maximum

Self-classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

Fe

Fe/Fe compounds (e.g. FeS2)

Maximum

Not classified

Na

Na2S

Maximum

Harmonised classification of the speciation +self classification for eye damage, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

Ni

Ni3S2

Maximum

Self-classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

 

Ni massive

 

Harmonised classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

Pb

Lead compounds with the exception of those specified elsewhere in Annex VI

Maximum

Harmonised classification of the speciation +self classification for carcinogenicity, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

S

Metal sulfides/sulphates

Maximum

classification see metal specific entry

Sb

Sb metal

Maximum

Not classified

Se

Se

Maximum

Harmonised classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

Si

Si

Maximum

Not classified

Sn

Sn

Maximum

Not classified

Te

Te

Maximum

Self-classification of the speciation, see MECLAS report in CSR Annex I

Zn

ZnS

Maximum

Not classified

 

* Detailed information on speciation can be found in IUCLID Section 1.4 Additional Physcio-chemical information

Hazard to aquatic environment (short-term): Acute Cat. 1

Hazard to aquatic environment (long-term): Chronic Cat. 1

 

General discussion

The UVCB assessment is driven by the assessment of the individual UVCB constituents. A paper describing the methodology is provided in IUCLID Section 13.

Conclusion on classification

The UVCB is a complex inorganic metal containing substance. Its toxicity is related to the degree to which constituents react with water/biological fluids and potentially release soluble, potentially bio available ionic and other (metal bearing) species.

The environmental (self) classification of the UVCB was derived using MeClas (see below).

Hazard to aquatic environment: acute/chronic Category 1

See IUCLID section 13 or CSR Annex 1 for detailed MeClas outprints with the specified input concentrations and resulting classification. Please visit www. meclas.eu for more information about the tool.