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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
13 April 2004
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: 1-Propanaminium, 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, esters with fatty acids, C18 unsatd., Me-sulfates (salts)
- Physical state: liquid
- Analytical purity: 100%
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Frequency: At the start and the end of both refreshment periods.
Volume: 2 mL from the approximate centre of the test vessels
Storage: Samples were stored in a freezer until analysis.
At the end of each refreshment period, the replicates were pooled at each concentration before sampling.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
Preparation of test solutions started with a loading rate of 10 mg/L applying 2 hours of magnetic stirring to reach maximum solubility of the test substance in the test medium. The lower test concentrations were prepared by subsequent dilutions of the 10 mg/L concentration in test medium. All test vessels were pre-incubated for 30 minutes with the respective test solution before the start of the test.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: water flea
- Strain: Straus, 1820
- Source: In-house laboratory culture with a known history
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): <24 h
- Method of breeding:
Start of each batch: newborn daphnids, i.e. less than 3 days old, by placing about 250 of them into 5 litres of medium in an all-glass culture vessel.
Maximum age of the cultures: 4 weeks
Renewal of the cultures: After 7 days of cultivation half of the medium twice a week.
Temperature of medium: 18-22°C
Feeding: Daily, a suspension of fresh water algae.
Medium: M7, as prescribed by Dr. Elendt-Schneider
- Feeding during test: no
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Test temperature:
19.2 - 20.8°C
pH:
fresh media: 8.0
24 h old media: 8.1-8.2
Dissolved oxygen:
fresh media: 8.2 - 9.0 mg/L
24 h old media: 8.8 - 9.1 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0, 0.10, 0.32, 1.0, 3.2, 10 mg/L + 4 mg/L humic acid (2 mg/L DOC), corresponding to measured concentrations of 0.077, 0.27, 0.89, 2.8 and 8.6 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 100 ml, all-glass, containing 80 ml of test solution
- Aeration: no
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): renewal of test solutions after 24 h
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Adjusted ISO medium, with 4 mg humic acid per litre
- Total organic carbon: 2 mg/L (measured <1.0 mg/L)

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 16 h light
- Light intensity: no data

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
Immobility (including mortality): at 24 and at 48 h
pH and dissolved oxygen: at the beginning, after 24 hours of exposure and at the end of the test, for all concentrations and the control
Temperature of medium: continuously in a temperature control vessel, beginning at the start of the test

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 3.2
- Range finding study
The test concentrations used for final test 1 were based on the results of preceding non-GLP screening tests with Daphnia magna
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
potassium dichromate
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 8.6 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (TWA)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
After 48 hours of exposure no (significant) immobility was observed at average exposure concentrations up to and including 0.27 mg/L. A maximum of 10% immobility is not considered to be significant because this percentage of immobilisation is accepted for the control as well. At an average exposure concentration of 0.89 mg/L 40% of the daphnids were immobilised. However, this immobilisation was related to mechanical hampering of the daphnids by undissolved test substance/humic acid and was therefore not considered to be a toxic effect. This conclusion was confirmed by the fact that no (significant) immobilisation was observed at the higher average test concentrations of 2.8 and 8.6 mg/L.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? yes
- 48 h EC50=0.53 mg/L, 95% confidence interval 0.49 - 0.62 mg/L; valid range: 0.3 - 1.0 mg/L

At the start of the test measured TOC concentrations ranged between 1.7 and 2.4 mg/L for all concentrations up to and including 3.2 mg/L. These concentrations remained stable during the refreshment period. Measured TOC at 10 mg/L was 4.1 mg/L at the start of the test and decreased to 2.8 mg/L at the end of the refreshment period.

Acute immobilisation of daphnids with humic acid

Nominal conc.

HH-2010-324

(mg/l)

Vessel

number

 

Number

Daphnia

exposed

Response at 24 h

Response at 48 h

 

number

Total

%

 

number

Total

%

Control

A

B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.101

A

B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0.321

A

B

C

D

5

6

6

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1.01

A

B

C

D

5

5

5

5

14

0

0

0

5

15

35

15

35

40

3.22

A

B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

10

103

A

B

C

D

5

5

5

5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

5

1Clear yellow solution

2(Slightly) hazy yellow solution

3Hazy yellow solution

4A test substance precipitate was observed

5A test substance precipitate was observed and test substance was observed to be attached to the daphnids

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48 h EC50 of MDIPA Esterquat C18 unsatd. in Daphnia magna was >8.6 mg/L (measured concentration) in the presence of 4 mg/L humic acid.
Executive summary:

The 48–hr-acute toxicity of MDIPA Esterquat C18 unsatd. to Daphnia magna was studied under semi-static conditions.  Daphnids were exposed to control and test chemical at nominal concentrations of 0.10, 0.32, 1.0, 3.2, 10 mg/L, corresponding to measured (TWA) concentrations of 0.077, 0.27, 0.89, 2.8 and 8.6 mg/L in the presence of 4 mg/L humic acid for 48 h.  Mortality/immobilisation and sublethal effects were observed daily. 

The 48-hour EC50 was >8.6 mg/L (TWA) based on immobilisation.  

 

Results Synopsis

Test Organism Age: Daphnia magna, <24 h

Test Type: Static Renewal

 

EC50: >8.6 mg a.i./L

Endpoint(s) Effected:  immobilisation

Description of key information

48 h EC50 > 8.6 mg a.i./L (measured, TWA) (Daphnia magna); OECD guideline 202 (2004), GLP, RL1; in the presence of 4 mg/L humic acid 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect concentration:
8.6 mg/L

Additional information

The 48–hr-acute toxicity of MDIPA Esterquat C18 unsatd. to Daphnia magna was studied under semi-static conditions.  Daphnids were exposed to control and test chemical at nominal concentrations of 0.10, 0.32, 1.0, 3.2, 10 mg/L, corresponding to measured (TWA) concentrations of 0.077, 0.27, 0.89, 2.8 and 8.6 mg/L in the presence of 4 mg/L humic acid for 48 h.  Mortality/immobilisation and sublethal effects were observed daily. 


The 48-hour EC50 was >8.6 mg/L (TWA, time weighted avarage) based on immobilisation.  


 


Similar results were obtained with the closely related read-across substances MDEA-Esterquat C16-18 and C18 unsatd. and MDEA-Esterquat C16-18 and C18 unsatd:


The 24-hr acute toxicity of MDEA-Esterquat C16-18 and C18 unsatd. to Daphnia magna was investigated under static conditions in a study conducted according to OECD TG 202 (Part I). Daphnids were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.32, 1.0, 3.2, 10 and 32 mg/L (nominal) for 24 hours. Immobilisation was observed at test termination. The 24-h EC50 was 14.8 mg/L with 95% CL of 8.4 - 26.2 mg/L (nominal each). No other effects were noted. The study period of 24 h was recommended before adoption of the OECD Guideline 202 in 2004. Therefore this study does not meet the time criterium (study duration 24 h instead of 48 h) of today standard methods.


 


The 48 hr-acute toxicity of MDIPA-Esterquat C16-18 and C18 unsatd. to Daphnia magna was studied under semi-static conditions.  Daphnids were exposed to control and test chemical at analytically confirmed nominal concentrations of 0, 2.5, 4.5, 8.1, 14 and 25 mg/L in the presence of 4 mg/L (< 2 mg/L DOC) humic acid for 48 h.  Immobilisation was observed daily. The 48-hour EC50 was 6.7 mg/L (analytically confirmed nominal concentration) based on immobilisation.