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Short-term as well as long-term aquatic toxicity tests show that sodium chlorate is not very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Short-term tests with fish and invertebrates, freshwater as well as marine species, gave results greater than 1000 mg/l. For long-term tests with fish and daphnids NOEC values greater than 500 mg/l were obtained.

Algae species (freshwater and marine) were more sensitive, but EC50 values were still greater than 100 mg/l and NOECs were greater than 62.5 mg/l. Lemna minor was most sensitive with a NOEC of 10 mg/l.

Two other taxonomic groups of marine organisms were tested as well. Molluscs were not sensitive in a short-term test with a EC50 greater than 1000 mg/l. The rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was the most sensitive marine species with an EC50 of 596 mg/l and an EC10 of 21 mg/l, both based on reproduction.

Taking all aquatic data into account Lemna minor is most sensitive, with a NOEC of 10 mg/l.