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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
11-May-2001 to 8-Jun-2001
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 2 because the study followed a standard test guideline, there were no deviations from the protocol, however it was not conducted under GLP.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic, non-adapted
Details on inoculum:
Inoculum used as the source of the microorganisms was an aliquot of fresh activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment facility in New Jersey, USA.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
ca. 50 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Test material was tested in triplicate, controls and blanks were tested in duplicate. The amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms from the oxidation of the test material was continuously monitored by an automated respirometer during the 28-day test period. Test material concentration was approximately 50mg/L. Sodium benzoate (positive control) concentration was 50mg/L. All test vessels were stirred constantly for 28 days using magnetic stir bars and plates.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
1.79
St. dev.:
2.29
Sampling time:
5 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
5.73
St. dev.:
0.55
Sampling time:
6 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
29
St. dev.:
1
Sampling time:
7 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
42.63
St. dev.:
2.02
Sampling time:
13 d
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
49.56
St. dev.:
0.37
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
Test material was inherently biodegradable. Half-life was approximately 4 weeks. By day 28, approximately 49.6% degradation of the test material was observed. 10% biodegradation was achieved on approximately day 7, 50% biodegradation was not achieved. By day 14, >60% biodegradation of positive control was observed, which meets the guideline requirement. No excursions from the protocol were noted.

Biodegradation was based on oxygen consumption and the theoretical oxygen demand of the test material as calculated using results of an elemental analysis of the test material.
Results with reference substance:
Sodium benzoate, the positive control, achieved 88.7% with a standard deviation of 2.71% degradation after 28 days, and therefore this test may be considered valid.
  % Degradation* Mean % Degradation
Sample (day 28) (day 28)
Test Material 49.8, 49.3  49.6
Na Benzoate 89.6, 85.7, 90.9 88.7

* replicate data

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, <1% naphthalene, biodegraded 49.6% after 28 days under the conditions of the study and is inherently biodegradable.
Executive summary:

Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, <1% naphthalene, biodegraded 49.6% after 28 days under the conditions of the study and is inherently biodegradable.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Dec 2000 to Jan 2001
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 2 because the study followed a standard test guideline, there were no deviations from the protocol, however it was not conducted under GLP.
Justification for type of information:
The justification for read across is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic, non-adapted
Details on inoculum:
Inoculum used as the source of the microorganisms was an aliquot of fresh activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment facility in New Jersey, USA.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
ca. 50 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Test material was tested in triplicate, controls and blanks were tested in duplicate. The amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms from the oxidation of the test material was continuously monitored by an automated respirometer during the 28-day test period. Test material concentration was approximately 50mg/L. Sodium benzoate (positive control) concentration was 50mg/L. All test vessels were stirred constantly for 28 days using magnetic stir bars and plates.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
2.44
St. dev.:
2.73
Sampling time:
4 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
46.05
St. dev.:
5.04
Sampling time:
5 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
51.43
St. dev.:
3.09
Sampling time:
7 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
60.04
St. dev.:
2.32
Sampling time:
17 d
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
69.99
St. dev.:
8.99
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
Test material was readily biodegradable. Half-life was <2 weeks. By day 28, 69.99% degradation of the test material was observed. 10% biodegradation was achieved on approximately day 5, 50% biodegradation on approximately day 7.

By day 14, >60% biodegradation of positive control was observed, which meets the guideline requirement. No excursions from the protocol were noted.
Results with reference substance:
Sodium benzoate, the positive control, achieved 94.42% with a standard deviation of 11.42% degradation after 28 days, and therefore this test may be considered valid.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable, but failing 10-day window
Conclusions:
Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, aromatics, <1% naphthalene, a multi-component substance, biodegraded to an extent of 70% after 28 days. The data support characterizing the test substance as rapidly biodegradable, readily biodegradable, not expected to persist in the environment under aerobic conditions. Although it did not meet the 10 -day window requirement, it is characterized as readily biodegradable because the criteria is not applied to multi-component substances when assessing their ready biodegradability.
Executive summary:

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, aromatics, <1% naphthalene, a multi-component substance, biodegraded to an extent of 70% after 28 days. The data support characterizing the test substance as rapidly biodegradable, readily biodegradable, not expected to persist in the environment under aerobic conditions. Although it did not meet the 10 -day window requirement, it is characterized as readily biodegradable because the criteria is not applied to multi-component substances when assessing their ready biodegradability.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
19-Dec-2000 to 16-Jan-2001
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 2 because the study followed a standard test guideline, there were no deviations from the protocol, however it was not conducted under GLP.
Justification for type of information:
A discussion and report on the read across strategy is given as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
This study was done in the spirit of the GLPs.
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic, non-adapted
Details on inoculum:
Inoculum used as the source of the microorganisms was an aliquot of fresh activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment facility in New Jersey, USA.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
ca. 50 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Test material was tested in triplicate, controls and blanks were tested in duplicate. The amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms from the oxidation of the test material was continuously monitored by an automated respirometer during the 28-day test period. Test material concentration was 50mg/L. Sodium benzoate (positive control) concentration was approximately 50mg/L. All test vessels were stirred constantly for 28 days using magnetic stir bars and plates.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
2.9
St. dev.:
3.3
Sampling time:
5 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
15.9
St. dev.:
9.47
Sampling time:
6 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
50.69
St. dev.:
1.75
Sampling time:
17 d
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
57.95
St. dev.:
0.71
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
Test material was inherently biodegradable. Half-life was approximately 17 days. By day 28, approximately 58.0% degradation of the test material was observed. 10% biodegradation was achieved on approximately day 6, 50% biodegradation on approximately day 16.

By day 14, >60% biodegradation of positive control was observed, which meets the guideline requirement. No excursions from the protocol were noted.

Biodegradation was based on oxygen consumption and the theoretical oxygen demand of the test material as calculated using results of an elemental analysis of the test material.
Results with reference substance:
Sodium benzoate, the positive control, achieved 94.42% with a standard deviation of 11.42% degradation after 28 days, and therefore this test may be considered valid.
  % Degradation* Mean % Degradation
Sample (day 28) (day 28)
Test Material 57.1, 58.1, 58.5  57.95
Na Benzoate 86.4, 107.5, 89.4 94.4

* replicate data

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, are inherently biodegradable under the conditions of the study and are not expected to persist in the environment under aerobic conditions.
Executive summary:

Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, are inherently biodegradable under the conditions of the study and are not expected to persist in the environment under aerobic conditions.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
20-Oct-1994 to 17-Nov-1994
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This robust summary has a reliability rating of 2 because the study followed a standard test guideline, there were no deviations from the protocol, however it was not conducted under GLP.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic, non-adapted
Details on inoculum:
Inoculum used as the source of the microorganisms was an aliquot of fresh activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment facility in New Jersey, USA.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
ca. 35 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
Test material was tested in triplicate, controls and blanks were tested in duplicate. The amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms from the oxidation of the test material was continuously monitored by an automated respirometer during the 28-day test period. Test material concentration was 35mg/L. Sodium benzoate (positive control) concentration was approximately 50mg/L. All test vessels were stirred constantly for 28 days using magnetic stir bars and plates.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
0
Sampling time:
2 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
17.94
Sampling time:
3 d
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
52.67
Sampling time:
5 d
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
60.74
St. dev.:
3.43
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
Test material was readily biodegradable. Half-life was <1 week. By day 28, 60.7% degradation of the test material was observed. 10% biodegradation was achieved on approximately day 3, 50% biodegradation on approximately day 5.
By day 14, >60% biodegradation of positive control was observed, which meets the guideline requirement. No excursions from the protocol were noted.
Results with reference substance:
Sodium benzoate, the positive control, achieved 97.33% with a standard deviation of 0.72% degradation after 28 days, and therefore this test may be considered valid.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
readily biodegradable, but failing 10-day window
Conclusions:
Hydrocarbons, C10 -C13, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, a multi-component substance, biodegraded to an extent of 61% after 28 days. The data support characterizing the test substance as rapidly biodegradable, readily biodegradable, not expected to persist in the environment under aerobic conditions. Although it did not meet the 10 -day window requirement, it is characterized as readily biodegradable because the criteria is not applied to multi-component substances when assessing their ready biodegradability.
Executive summary:

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, a multi-component substance, biodegraded to an extent of 61% after 28 days. The data support characterizing the test substance as rapidly biodegradable, readily biodegradable, not expected to persist in the environment under aerobic conditions. Although it did not meet the 10 -day window requirement, it is characterized as readily biodegradable because the criteria is not applied to multi-component substances when assessing their ready biodegradability.

Description of key information

There is data available for this substance. Additionally, key data is available for the following structural analogues: Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, <1% naphthalene, Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene and Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, aromatics, <1% naphthalene. The data for these substances is presented in the dossier. The data is read across to these substances based on analogue read across and a discussion and report on the read across strategy is provided as an attachment in IUCLID Section 13.

Based on the available data, this substance is considered readily biodegradable. Key information is summarised below:

Hydrocarbons, C10-C13, aromatics, <1% naphthalene, biodegraded to an extent of 70% after 28 days under the conditions of the study and is considered readily biodegradable.

Hydrocarbons, C10 -C13, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, biodegraded to an extent of 61% after 28 days under the conditions of the study and is considered readily biodegradable.

Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, <1% naphthalene, biodegraded 49.6% after 28 days under the conditions of the study and is therefore considered inherently biodegradable.

Hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, biograded 57.95% after 28 days under the conditions of the study and is therefore considered inherently biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
readily biodegradable

Additional information