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Long-term toxicity to fish

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The conduct of a chronic toxicity study on fish with the target substance titanium oxide sulphate itself is being waived, as the substance is highly unstable in water and produces insoluble titanium dioxide after rapid hydrolysis. Based on the information available it can be concluded that neither target compound titanium oxide sulphate nor the final hydrolysis transformation products titanium dioxide and sulphuric acid (after being neutralised) exhibit chronic toxicity to fish.

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Additional information

The conduct of a chronic toxicity study on fish on the target substance itself is being waived, as the substance is highly unstable in water and produces insoluble titanium dioxide after rapid hydrolysis. Thus the aquatic hazard assessment is to be based on the transformation products. As pH effects are not true toxic effects and not relevant for assessment and as the sulphates are present in high natural background concentrations, the assessment is based on the following data retrieved for titanium dioxide:

1.) The low bioaccumulation tendency of titanium dioxide as being proven by the study of Frederici (2007)

2. ) The absence of any short-term toxic effects to fish (see section short-term toxicity to fish)

3.) The absence of chronic toxic effects up to loading rates >= 1000 mg/l TiO2 by the long term study of Beim (1982).

4.) Finally, titanium dioxide is virtually insoluble in water.

It is concluded that final hydrolysis transformation product titanium dioxide does not exhibit long-term toxic effects to fish at the level of its water solubility in addition with suspended microdisperse matter in excess, even if ingested.

Concerning the target compound titanium oxysulfate itself, the increase of acidity caused by the rapid hydrolysis reaction to form the other final hydrolysis product sulphuric acid is of no relevance for environmental risk assessment under REACH. Within the environmentally relevant pH range sulfuric acid species are being neutralised and thus rendered harmless to biota.