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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Description of key information

No deaths or other adverse effects were seen in Mallard ducks and pheasants following acute (single gavage at up to 24 g/kg bw) or repeated (in the diet for 5 days at up to 24 g/kg feed) exposure to Cereclor S52 (a C14-17 chlorinated paraffin; 52% chlorination). A decrease in 14-day embryo viability was seen in a reproduction toxicity test in which Mallard ducks were fed a C10-13 chlorinated paraffin (58% chlorinated) in the diet for 22 weeks at a concentration of 1000 mg/kg diet; a reproduction NOEC of 166 mg/kg diet and a parental NOEC 1000 mg/kg diet was established.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The toxicity of Cereclor S52 (a C14-17 chlorinated paraffin; 52% chlorination) has been determined using Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

In the acute studies, single oral doses of 10 and 24 g/kg bw for the mallard and pheasant, respectively, were administered to groups of 5 males and 5 females by gavage, and the birds were observed for 14 days. No mortality or abnormal clinical symptoms were observed during the 14-day period (Madeley and Birtley, 1980).

In the sub-acute tests, groups of (5 male and 5 female) Mallards and pheasants were administered Cereclor S52 in their diet at about 1 or 24 g/kg feed for 5 days, with a further 3 days observation period. All test animals were found to remain in good health throughout the experiment and no deaths were seen. In the Mallard, depressed food intake was seen at the highest dose, but this did not lead to a significant effect on weight gain. No effects were seen with the pheasant. No abnormalities were observed on autopsy (Madeley and Birtley, 1980).

In addition, the reproductive toxicity of a C10-13 chlorinated paraffin (58% chlorination) was assessed in a study performed using a protocol similar to OECD guideline 206 (and to GLP), in which Mallard ducks were fed the related material in the diet for 22 weeks at a concentration of up to 1000 mg/kg diet. A decrease in 14-day embryo viability was seen at the top dose, but no effects (including egg shell cracking, egg weight, egg shell thickness, and hatchability) were seen at 166 or 28 mg/kg diet. Therefore, the reproduction NOEC was 166 mg/kg diet and the parental NOEC was 1000 mg/kg diet (Shults, 1984). In view of the similarities in structure and physiochemical properties [between SCCPs and MCCPs], it can be predicted that MCCPs would also be of low reproductive toxicity to Mallards following repeated oral exposure.