Registration Dossier

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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Substance characterisation

The test substance Bergamot oil is a Natural Complex Substance (NCS) for which typically > 97% of the constituents is identified.

The constituents of Bergamot oil are grouped as predominantly monoterpenoid hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds or related esters (97%). In the typical Bergamot oil, the main constituents are D-limonene, linalyl acetate and Linalool.

This composition represents a relatively homogenous type of NCS. For the environmental risk assessment the properties of the major representative of this group (D-limonene) may be considered. Also according to the DPD+ method, the lead substance for the environmental risk assessment is the constituent D-limonene. The constituents all have different properties for water solubility, volatility, adsorption and lipophilicity that determine their environmental behaviour. Due to these differences the assessment of the environmental properties of Bergamot oil is preferably based on data for the individual constituents.


Based on the constituent approach as described in the industry protocol for the REACH registration of NCSs of botanical origin used as fragrance ingredients (see footnote 1), the water solubility ranges from 0.028 to 1767 mg/l for the constituents. The major constituent (D-limonene) is soluble (44.4 mg/l).

The estimated vapour pressure of Bergamot oil was 123.1 Pa at 25ºC, ranging from 2.64E-07 to 981 Pa at 25ºC for the constituents. For the major constituent (typically circa 43 % of the composition) the vapour pressure is 193 Pa.

The Log Kow of the constituents ranges from 2.14 to 6.3. Log Kow is above 4 for 84.55 % of the typical constituent composition. Thus the majority of the constituents have a high capacity to sorb to organic matter.

The estimated log Koc values of the known constituents of Bergamot oil range from 1.69 to 4.90.


Bergamot oil is to be considered as a readily biodegradable substance.


(1) A statement on the use of the protocol for Registration of Natural Complex Substance (NCS) under REACH has been attached to the dossier.