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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

NOEC (4 d) = 0.3 mg/L on Gadus morrhua (marine, no guideline, embryo and sac-fry stage)
NOEC (32 d) = 1.35 mg/L on Pimephales promelas (freshwater, OECD 210)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

freshwater study

Long-term effects of p-cresol to the freshwater species Pimephales promelas were tested in a study similar to OECD 210 (Barron and Adelman, 1984). After an exposure period of 32 d a NOEC of 1.35 mg/L was found. This value is included in the PNEC derivation for freshwater.

marine study

Long-term effects of o-, m-, and p-cresol to different life stages were measured in a non-guideline study using fertilized fish eggs and larvae of the marine fish species Gadus morrhua (Atlantic cod) (Falk-Petersen et al. 1985). Eggs and larvae were incubated for 4 d (eggs) to 6 d (larvae) and monitored for sublethal effects during the post-exposure periods of up to 12 d. The 4-d EC50 was >30 mg/L (highest test concentration) for o-, and m-cresol. From lowest non-lethal effects at 10 mg/L, a NOEC of 3 mg/L was derived for o-, and m-cresol. The most critical NOEC of 0.3 mg/L was found for p-cresol. This study is comparable to a short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages (EU Annex V C.15, OECD 212), which would be a suitable replacement of a true chronic test (EU TGD 2003). It has some shortcomings regarding documentation and the exposure time is limited to parts of the observation period. However, as the experimental results of 3 different exposure periods support each other, the test can be used as "reliable with restrictions".


Comparing results on freshwater and marine fish species the most sensitive NOEC of 0.3 mg/L was found for the marine compartment.