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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study (according to OECD 422 and GLP)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
other: OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
Limit test:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Test material form:
not specified
migrated information: particulates
Details on test material:
Name of test material (as cited in study report): Combined Repeat Dose and Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity by Oral Administration in Rats: C.I. Pigment Red 22
Analytical purity: 99 wt%

Test animals

Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Source: Charles River Japan, Inc. (Atsugi Breeding center)
- Age at study initiation: 8 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: males 309-355 g, females: 206 to 232 g
- Housing: individually; mating period: 1 male, 1 female; 1 litter during lactation
- Diet: autoclaved pellet die for laboratory animals (CRF-1, Oriental Yeast Industry Co., LTD), ad libitum
- Water: sterile tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 6 days

- Temperature (°C): 22 +/-2
- Humidity (%): 55 +/- 15
- Air changes (per hr): 12
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
other: 0.5 % sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-NA) aqueous solution containing 0.1 % Tween 80
Details on exposure:

- Rate of preparation of test substance : once or twice a week
- Storage temperature of suspension: 4°C

- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water): no data
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 10 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
At the first preparation, the dosing formulations were analyzed by HPLC and it was confirmed that the concentrations were within the target value +/-10%.
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1:1
- Length of cohabitation: 14 days
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug or sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: no data
Duration of treatment / exposure:
males: from 14 days before mating and throught he mating period until the day before necroscopy for a total of 37 days
females: from 14 days beformating, through the matingand gestation periods and delivery until day 4 of lactation for a total of 42 to 47 days. Non-delivering females, however, were treated until the day before necropsy.
Frequency of treatment:
Duration of test:
till day 4 postnatally
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: highest dose is the upper limit dose level stipulated in the OECD guideline
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): stratified-by-weight randomization methodon the basis of the body weights to get almost the same mean body weights for each group.


Maternal examinations:
For details on parental animals see section 7.5.1 (repeated dose toxicity oral).
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes microscopically

Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes: (all)
- Soft tissue examinations: No
- Skeletal examinations: No
- Head examinations: No
Multiple comparison test:
Body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantations, number of offspring

Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunnett-type multiple comparison test:
Days until copulation, number of estrus stages without copulation, mean estrous cycle length, gestation length, implantation index, delivery index, live birth index, incidence of offspring with external anomaly, viability index an Day 4

Chi-square test: Histopathological findings

Fisher's exact probability test:
Incidence of females with irregular estrous cycles, copulation index, fertility index, gestation index, sex ratio (rnale/fernale), incidence of dams with externally abnormal offspring
Reproductive indices
(1) Days until copulation: Number of days from the start of mating to detection of copulation
(2) Number of estrus stages without copulation
(3) Copulation index (%): (Number of animals with successful copulation/Number of animals paired) x 100
(4) Fertility index (%): (Number of pregnant animals/Number of animals with successful copulation) x 100
(5) Gestation length: Days until completion of delivery from Day 0 of gestation
(6) Gestation index (%): (Number of females with live offspring/Number of pregnant females) x 100
(7) Implantation index (%): (Number of implantations/Number of corpora lutea) x 100
(8) Delivery index (%): (Total number of offspring born/Number of implantations) x 100
Offspring viability indices
(1) Live birth index (%): (Number of offspring born alive/ Total number of offspring born) x 100
(2) Viability index on Day 4 (%): (Number of live offspring on Day 4/ Number of offspring born alive) x 100
Historical control data:
no data

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes. Remark: details see below

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Effects observed in females were judged not to be adverse, for details see section 7.5.1 (NOAEL 1000 mg/kg bw/d)

Effect levels (maternal animals)

Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
1) Observation of offspring
There were no significant differences in the number of offspring born or born alive, sex ratio, live birth index or viability index on Day 4 between the control and each treated group. In the clinical observation, subcutaneous hemorrhage and abdominal hemorrhage were observed in 1 or 2 pups each in the control and 100 mg/kg groups, respectively; however, they were judged not treatment-related because of the lack of dose-dependency in their incidences. Although loss of suckling was observed in some neonates on the birthday in the control, 300 and 1000 mg/kg groups, it was judged not treatment-related because all pups were confirmed to have been suckled by the dams on the next day. Moreover, no abnormal external features were found in neonates in any group including the control group.

2) Body weight
There were no significant differences in body weight or body weight gain of either sex between the control and treated groups.

3) Necropsy findings
Hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity, and white and yellow patches on the liver were observed only in 1 male in the 100 mg/kg group, as was dilatation of the renal pelvis in 2 males in the 1000 mg/kg group. However, they were judged not treatrnent-related, because the same findings did not occur frequently in the 1000 mg/kg group. Moreover, there were no abnormal findings in pups that died until postnatal Day 4.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: Development was not impaired at any dose level.

Fetal abnormalities

not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Under the conditions of the test there were no effects on reproduction or development; therefore, the NOAEL for the reproductive / developmental toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day in both parental animals and offspring.
Executive summary:

A combined repeated dose toxicity study with reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test with the test item administered by oral gavage in Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/dose) was performed according to OECD TG 422. The dose levels for this study were 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day for a total of 37 days (males) and through mating, gestation and delivery until day 4 of lactation (females).

There were no effects on reproduction or development; therefore, the NOAEL for the reproductive/developmental toxicity was considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day in both parental animals and offspring.