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Physical & Chemical properties

Water solubility

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Reference
Endpoint:
water solubility
Type of information:
other: QSAR and experimental data
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2017-06-25 to 2017-06-26
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: results from QSAR model and literature data
Justification for type of information:
1. SOFTWARE
iSafeRat® toolbox – in Silico Algorithms For Environmental Risk And Toxicity version 2.3

2. MODEL (incl. version number)
iSafeRat® holistic HA-QSAR v1.7

3. SMILES OR OTHER IDENTIFIERS USED AS INPUT FOR THE MODEL
α-pinene CC1=CCC2CC1C2(C)C
α-phellandrene CC1=CCC(C=C1)C(C)C
limonene CC1=CCC(CC1)C(=C)C
p-cymene CC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C)C
β-phellandrene CC(C)C1CCC(=C)C=C1
carene (Δ3) CC1=CCC2C(C1)C2(C)C
germacrene D CC1=CCCC(=C)C=CC(CC1)C(C)C
sabinene CC(C)C12CCC(=C)C1C2
β-pinene CC1(C2CCC(=C)C1C2)C
elemol CC(=C)C1CC(CCC1(C)C=C)C(C)(C)O
myrcene CC(=CCCC(=C)C=C)C
β-caryophyllene CC1=CCCC(=C)C2CC(C2CC1)(C)C
bicyclogermacrene CC1=CCCC(=CC2C(C2(C)C)CC1)C

4. SCIENTIFIC VALIDITY OF THE (Q)SAR MODEL
See attached QMRF

5. APPLICABILITY DOMAIN
See attached QPRF:

6. ADEQUACY OF THE RESULT
See attached QPRF
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 105 (Water Solubility)
Deviations:
not applicable
Remarks:
QSAR model
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The purpose of the in silico study was to determine the water solubility of the constituents of the test item in pure water at 25°C. The determination was performed using a Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model which have been validated as QSAR models to be compliant with the OECD (2004) recommendations for QSAR modeling (refer to the QMRF with JRC QMRF identifier: Q19-46-51-448 for further details). This model is applicable for the substances generally classified as MOA 1 substances (non-polar narcotics) and ethers, esters, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, acids and phenols. The algorithm is based on a regression method in which validated log Kow values are plotted against the log of sub-cooled liquid water solubility from studies of high quality. These have been carried out using one of the methods recommended in the OECD 105 guideline or an adaptation of these. Some water solubility values are coming from literature.
Further to this the water solubility of the WAF is determined by using a series of calculation steps using phase equilibrium thermodynamics.
GLP compliance:
no
Type of method:
other: QSAR model
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material: confidential data
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: confidential data
- Purity test date: confidential data

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: confidential data
- Stability under test conditions: confidential data
- Solubility and stability of the test substance in the solvent/vehicle: confidential data
- Reactivity of the test substance with the solvent/vehicle of the cell culture medium: confidential data
Key result
Water solubility:
0.396 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
a-pinene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
1.8 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
a-phellandrene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.846 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
limonene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.436 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
p-cymene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
1.07 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
β-phellandrene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.296 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
carene (Δ3)
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.006 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
germacrene D
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.136 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
sabinene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.089 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
β-pinene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
7.14 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
elemol
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.104 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
myrcene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.001 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
β-caryophyllene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7
Key result
Water solubility:
0.001 mg/L
Conc. based on:
other: constituent
Remarks:
bicyclogermacrene
Temp.:
25 °C
pH:
7

A thermodynamically based calculation is applied to determine the apparent water solubility of the consistuent when they are together within the mixture. Dhima et al. (1998) equation is used here as follow :

WSi(mix) = WSi(pure) x xi(mix) x act.coeff.i(mix)

WSi(mix) is the water solubility of the constituent i in the mixture (mg/L)

WSi(pure) is the water solubility of the consistuent i pure (mg/L)

xi(mix) is the molar fraction of the constituent i in the mixture (confidential data)

act.coeff.i(mix) is the activity coefficient of the constituent i in the mixture (confidential)

Data used for the calculation

Water solubility and activity coefficient values of the main constituents as pure compounds are listed below.

Constituents

Water Solubility at 25°C (mg/L)

Water Solubility references

α-pinene

2.19

https://echa.europa.eu/fr/brief-profile/-/briefprofile/100.001.175, brief profile

α-phellandrene

4.88

KREATiS (2017) Calculated value using iSafeRat® High-Accuracy QSAR model

limonene

7.57

Miller DJ, Hawthorne SB; J Chem Eng Data 44: 315-8 (2000) (HSDB)

p-cymene

23.4

Banerjee S et al; Environ Sci Technol 14: 1227-9 (1980) (HSDB)

β-phellandrene

12.2

KREATiS (2017) Calculated value using iSafeRat® High-Accuracy QSAR model

carene (Δ3)

3.7

https://echa.europa.eu/fr/brief-profile/-/briefprofile/100.033.367, brief profile

germacrene D

0.0878

KREATiS (2017) Calculated value using iSafeRat® High-Accuracy QSAR model

sabinene

7.98

KREATiS (2017) Calculated value using iSafeRat® High-Accuracy QSAR model

β-pinene

6.95

KREATiS (2017) Calculated value using iSafeRat® High-Accuracy QSAR model

elemol

194

https://echa.europa.eu/fr/brief-profile/-/briefprofile/100.041.660, brief profile

myrcene

5.06

https://echa.europa.eu/fr/brief-profile/-/briefprofile/100.004.203, brief profile

β-caryophyllene

0.0844

KREATiS (2017) Calculated value using iSafeRat® High-Accuracy QSAR model

 bicyclogermacrene  0.0918

  KREATiS (2017) Calculated value using iSafeRat® High-Accuracy QSAR model

Conclusions:
Individual solubility of major constituents ranging between 0.0007 and 7.14 mg/L (most < 1 mg/L) at 25°C.
The UVCB substance is considered of low solubility.
Executive summary:

The water solubility of the test item was derived from the range of the individual values of 13 constituents, representing 93% of a typical composition.

Some data was found in literature sources and considered as reliable.

When not available, a Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model was used. The determination was performed using a regression method in which validated log Kow values are plotted against the log of sub-cooled liquid water solubility. All of the constituents fall within the applicability domain of the model and were therefore reliably predicted for their water solubility.

The water solubility of the constituents were found in the range 0.0007 to 7.14 mg/L at 25°C, only 3/13 being > 1 mg/L.

Description of key information

Individual solubility of major constituents in the mixture ranging between 0.0007 and 7.1 mg/L (10/13 < 1 mg/L) at 25°C.

The UVCB substance is considered of low solubility.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

No experimental study was conducted on the test substance, as considered technically not feasible, due to the number of constituents (UVCB) and low water solubility anticipated.

Instead, the individual values of 13 major constituents, representing 93% of a typical composition, were gathered from reliable literature sources, or estimated by QSAR when not publicly available. The result is expressed as a range, no key value was determined.