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Environmental fate & pathways

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The dataset investigating the environmental fate of Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol is not complete. There are currently no data available investigating the ready biodegradability of the target substance. In order to fulfil the standard information requirements, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, read-across from structurally related substances was conducted.

In accordance with Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, "information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests, provided that the conditions set out in Annex XI are met.”. In particular for aquatic toxicity, information shall be generated whenever possible by means other than vertebrate animal tests, which includes the use of information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across).

Having regard to the general rules for grouping of substances and read-across approach laid down in Annex XI, Item 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 whereby substances may be predicted as similar provided that their physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a regular pattern as a result of structural similarity.

The target substance and all source substances are considered to be similar on the basis of the structural similar properties and/or activities. The available endpoint information on the source substances is used to predict comparable results for the target substance Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol.

The target substance Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol is characterised by a low vapour pressure (VP < 0.0001 Pa at 20 °C, SPARC (v4.6)), a low water solubility (< 5 µg/L at 20 °C, pH=6.3) and a high log Koc indicating a high adsorption potential to soil and sediment particles (log Koc 3.25 - > 5, MCI method, KOCWIN v2.00).

Based on the result from one standard biodegradation study, the target substance is readily biodegradable. Thus, it is expected that an extensive elimination of the substance in sewage treatment plants will occur. In the case insoluble chemicals enter a standard Sewage Treatment Plant (STP), they will be extensively removed in the primary settling tank and fat trap and thus, only limited amounts will get in contact with activated sludge organisms, according to the Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.7b (ECHA, 2016). As a result of the high adsorption potential of the substance (log Koc 3.25 - > 5, MCI method, KOCWIN v2.00) a removal from the water column to a significant degree by adsorption to sewage sludge can be expected (Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.7b, (ECHA, 2016). In conclusion, the concentration of the substance in conventional STP effluents is presumably marginal. Abiotic degradation via hydrolysis is considered as not relevant for the substance. Moreover, the substance is not volatile (VP < 0.0001 Pa at 20 °C) and thus evaporation to the air and subsequent transport through the atmosphere to other environmental compartments is not likely. However, even though the substance enters the atmospheric compartment it will be quickly photodegraded with a half-life of < 24 h.

Based on the low water solubility and metabolism via enzymatic hydrolysis of the substance a relevant uptake and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms is not expected. Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol is expected to be hydrolysed and the cleavage products can be further metabolized. In conclusion, bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the food chain of the substance is not expected. This is supported by a low calculated BCF/BAF values of 0.893 - 24.68/0.893 - 24.69 L/kg (BCFBAF v3.01, Arnot-Gobas, including biotransformation, upper trophic). Please refer to IUCLID Section 5.3 for a detailed overview on bioaccumulation of Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol.

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