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Description of key information

RDT (oral, OECD 407), rat: NOAEL (m/f) = 1450/1613 mg/kg bw/day (RA from CAS 68424-31-7)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Nov - Dec 1992
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP - Guideline study.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 407 (Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Alpk:APfSD
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Alderly Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK
- Age at study initiation: 28 d
- Weight at study initiation: 148.45 g (males); 122.6 g (females)
- Housing: sexes separately, five per cage, cages had measurements of 26.5 x 50.0 x 20.0 cm and were constructed of stainless steel mesh with one solid side.
- Diet: CT1 diet; Special Diets Services Limited, Witham, Essex, UK, ad libitum
- Water: tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: approx. 1 week

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19 - 23
- Humidity (%): 45 - 65 (71 at one occasion)
- Air changes (per hr): 25 - 30
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 / 12

IN-LIFE DATES: From: November 1992 To: December 1992
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
other: in diet
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: All diet preparations were based on CT1 diet (Special Diets Services Limited, Witham, Essex, UK). They were prepared by grinding the appropriate amount of test substance with 1 kg of milled CT1 diet. This premix was then added to 14 kg of diet and mixed thoroughly with a Pharma Blender Model PMA 100S (T K Filder).

DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): 15 kg batches
- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food): CT1 diet (Special Diets Services Limited, Witham, Essex, UK)
- Storage temperature of food: - 20°C, stored at room temperature for usage up to 14 days
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Chemical stability was determined for diet preparations over a period of 5 weeks following storage at room temperatureT or at -20°C. Samples were extracted by chemical shaking with ethyl acetate. The supernatant was diluted with ethyl acetate to give solutions containing appropriate concentrations of the test substance. Extracts were analysed by gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The extract concentration was calculated by reference to data from a standard containing a known concentration.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
daily
Frequency of treatment:
28 d
Dose / conc.:
1 000 ppm
Remarks:
corresponding to 112 and 119 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively
Dose / conc.:
5 000 ppm
Remarks:
corresponding to 562 and 586 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively
Dose / conc.:
12 500 ppm
Remarks:
corresponding to 1450 and 1613 mg/kg bw/day for males and females, respectively
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Based on results of preliminary feeding studies

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Daily
- Cage side observations checked: changes in clinical condition and behaviour and significant changes were recorded.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: on Days 8, 15, 22, 29
- observations included, but were not limited to the assessment of autonomic function (e.g. lacrimation, salivation, piloerection, exophthalmus, urination, defecation, pupillary function, ptosis); description, incidence and severity of any convulsions, tremors, abnormal motor function, alteration in respiration, reactivity to stimuli, changes in the level of arousal, sensorimotor responses

BODY WEIGHT: Yes, measurement in replicate order immediately before feeding and at the same day once a week until termination.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as mg food/kg body weight: Yes, on a weekly basis
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
At termination, all rats were bled by cardiac puncture and samples were collected. Parameters determined: Hemoglobin, red cell count, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, eosinophil count, prothrombin time and kaolin-cephalin time

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
At termination, all rats were bled by cardiac puncture and samples were collected. Parameters determined: Albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase, plasma gamma-glutamyl transferase, plasma alanine aminotransferase, plasma aspartate aminotransferase, plasma creatine kinase, plasma sodium, plasma potassium, plasma chloride, plasma calcium and plasma phosphorus

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: on Days 8, 15, 22, 29
- Dose groups that were examined: All
- Battery of functions tested: sensory activity / grip strength
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes

HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (adrenals, aorta, bladder, bone and bone marrow (femur), brain, caecum, colon, cervical lymph node, cervix, colon, duodenum, epididymis, eye and harderian gland, heart, ileum, jejunum, kidney, liver, lungs, mammary gland, mesenteric lymph node, nasal passages, esophagus, oral cavity, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroid glad, pituitary gland, prostate gland, rectum, salivary glands, sciatic nerve, seminal vesicles, skin, spinal cord, spleen, sternum, stomach, testes, thymus, thyroid gland, trachea, uterus, voluntary muscle)
Statistics:
Bodyweights were considered by analysis of covariance on initial body weight, separately for males and females. Time to tail flick and fore and hindlimb grip strength at weeks 2, 3, 4 and 5 were considered by analysis of variance, separately for both sexes. Haematological and clinical blood parameters were considered by analysis of variance. Organ weights were considered by analysis of variance and covariance on final body weight separately for both sexes.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
reduction in haemoglobin and haematocrit (males), reductions in haemoglobin, haematocrit and in white blood cell count (females).
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
minor reductions in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein levels and plasma alanine transferase activities in males
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
increased kidney weights (males), slightly increased kidney weights (females), increased liver weights (males/females) in 5000 and 12500 ppm groups
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
kidney: increased tubular hyaline droplet formation, tubular basophilia, granular cast formation (males). liver: minimal hepatocyte hypertrophy in 4/5 male rats
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined
Details on results:
DIET ANALYSIS
All diets prepared were found to be within 4% of the target concentration. The homogeneity of the test material in the diet, determined at 1000 and 12500 ppm inclusion levels was within 2% of the overall mean concentration for both levels. Chemical stability of the test material, assessed at the 1000 and 12500 ppm inclusion levels stored at room temperature or at -20 °C was satisfactory over the period of use. Dose rates (based on nominal dietary levels) were highest at the start of the study and declined rapidly during the period of rapid growth to week 4.

MORTALITY
There were no mortalities.

FUNCTIONAL OBSERVATION BATTERY
A slightly reduced splay reflex was observed in one female of the 1000 ppm group (on days 29 and 30), in one male of the 5000 ppm group (on day 29) and in one male of the 12.500 ppm group (on day 29). As isolated observations, these were considered to be incidental. There were no differences in time to tail flick in either sex which could be attributed to treatment. The statistically significant increase in time to response observed on day 22 for males (5000 ppm) and day 8 for females (1000 ppm) were considered to be incidental to treatment in the absence of similar changes at higher dose levels. There was no evidence of any treatment related effects on forelimb or hindlimb grip strength. Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
There were no statistically significant effects on body weight and all final bodyweights were within 3% of the respective controls, after adjusting for initial weight differences.

FOOD CONSUMPTION
Food consumption in all treated groups remained similar to, or exceeded that, of the respective control group throughout the study.

HAEMATOLOGY
There were statistically significant reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit at 12.500 ppm in male rats. Statistically significant reductions in haemoglobin and haematocrit were seen in females at 1000 and 5000 ppm and in white blood cell count at 1000 ppm. In the absence of a coherent dose-response relationship, these differences were considered incidental to treatment.
Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
There were minor reductions in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels and plasma alanine transferase activities in males at 12500 ppm compared to controls. Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.
ORGAN WEIGHTS
Kidney weights adjusted for body weight were statistically significantly increased in males at 5000 and 12500 ppm. All the females in the treatment groups had slightly raised kidney weights compared to control, but none achieved statistical significance, and there was no evidence of a coherent dose response relationship. Liver weights adjusted for body weight were statistically significantly increased in both sexes at 12500 ppm and in males at 5000 ppm. Any other statistically significant changes were considered spurious and unrelated to treatment with the test material.

PATHOLOGY
No treatment-related macroscopic findings were apparent at the end of the study.

HISTOPATHOLOGY
Microscopic findings: Treatment related findings were present in the kidney of male rats from all dose groups. In the 5000 and 12500 ppm dose group these comprised increased tubular hyaline droplet formation and tubular basophilia in all animals, and granular cast formation in four of the 5000 ppm animals and all of the 12500 ppm animals; the latter occurring at the cortico-medullary injection. In the 1000 ppm group, increased renal hyaline droplet formation and/or tubular basophilia were seen, but not granular cast formation. In the liver, there was minimal hepatocyte hypertrophy in 4/5 male rats in the 12500 ppm group. The increased kidney weights and microscopic findings of renal tubular basophilia, granular cast formation and increased hyaline droplet formation present in male rats at 5000 and 12.500 ppm are clearly treatment related. These findings are consistent with the well characterized light hydrocarbon nephropathy described for male rats, following to a variety of chemicals including light hydrocarbons such as unleaded gasoline and trimethyl pentane. The characteristics include an increased accumulation of hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys, the main constituent of which is alpha 2µ-globulin (Alden et al. Adv. Modern Environ Toxicol 7: 107-120 (1984); Stonard et al. Renal Heterogeneity and Target Cell Toxicity. Bach PH and Lock EA Eds, John Wiley and Sons (1985)). It is widely accepted that this phenomenon is specific to male rat and as such appears to have no relevance for man (Swenberg et al. Toxicol and App. Pharmacol. 97: 35-46 (1989)).
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 613 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed (corresponding to 12500 ppm)
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 450 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed (corresponding to 12500 ppm)
Key result
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
Please refer to the Additional Information field in the endpoint study summary
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 450 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed (corresponding to 12500 ppm)
Remarks on result:
other: Croda, 1993
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 613 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed (corresponding to 12500 ppm)
Remarks on result:
other: Croda, 1993
Key result
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 450 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
The available information comprises an adequate and reliable study (Klimisch score 1) from a reference substance with similar structure and intrinsic properties. Read-across is justified based on common functional group(s), common precursors/breakdown products, similarities in PC/ECO/TOX properties (refer to endpoint discussion for further details). The selected study is thus sufficient to fulfil the standard information requirements set out in Annex VIII-IX, 8.6, in accordance with Annex XI, 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006.

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Justification for read-across

There are no data available for the repeated dose toxicity of Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 85186-72-7). In accordance with Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, "information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests, provided that the conditions set out in Annex XI are met.” In particular for human toxicity, information shall be generated whenever possible by means other than vertebrate animal tests, which includes the use of information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across).

 

Having regard to the general rules for the read-across approach laid down in Annex XI, Item 1.5, of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 whereby substances may be predicted as similar provided that their physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a comparable pattern as a result of structural similarity, the substance fatty acids, C7, C8, C10 and 2-ethylhexanoic acid, tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 68424-31-7) is selected as source substance.

 

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

CAS 68424-31-7

A reliable 28 day study with Fatty acids, C5-10, esters with pentraerythritol (CAS 68424-31-7) was conducted according to OECD guideline 407 and under GLP conditions (Croda, 1993). The test substance was administered in concentrations of 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 12500 ppm (corresponding to 112, 562 and 1450 mg/kg bw/day for male and 119, 586 and 1613 mg/kg bw/day for female rats) to 5 Alpk:APfSD rats per sex and dose for 28 consecutive days. Control animals (5 per sex and dose) received the plain diet. There were no toxicologically significant effects on body weight, food consumption and clinical condition and mortality up to and including the highest dose level. Changes in clinical chemistry and red cell-related parameters were observed in male rats at 12500 ppm, but these were minor and considered not to be of toxicological significance. A minimal hepatocyte hypertrophy present in males of the 12500 ppm group was observed and considered to be evidence of an adaptive response. Microscopic examination of the kidneys from male animals from all dose groups revealed an increase in hyaline droplet formation (the main constituent of which is alpha-2µ-globulin) and tubular basophilia. This phenomenon is widely accepted to be specific to the male rat and as such is considered to have no relevance to man. A NOAEL of 1450 and 1613 mg/kg/d was identified for male and female rats, respectively.

 

Conclusion for repeated dose toxicity

The data for the source substance showed that no effects were observed up to and including the recommended limit values in a study conducted via the oral route. No information on repeated dose toxicity is available for the inhalation and dermal routes. Therefore, as the available data did not identify any hazard for repeated dose toxicity, Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 85186-72-7) is not expected to be hazardous following repeated exposure.

Justification for classification or non-classification

According to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 "General Requirements for Generation of Information on Intrinsic Properties of substances", information on intrinsic properties of substances may be generated by means other than tests e.g. from information from structurally related substances (grouping or read-across), provided that conditions set out in Annex XI are met. Annex XI, "General rules for adaptation of this standard testing regime set out in Annexes VII to X” states that “substances whose physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a regular pattern as a result of structural similarity may be considered as a group, or ‘category’ of substances. This avoids the need to test every substance for every endpoint". Since the analogue concept is applied to Fatty acids, C16-18 (even numbered) and C18-unsatd., branched and linear, tri- and tetraesters with pentaerythritol (CAS 85186-72-7), data will be generated from data for reference source substance(s) to avoid unnecessary animal testing. Additionally, once the analogue read-across concept is applied, substances will be classified and labelled on this basis.

Therefore, based on the analogue read-across approach, the available data on repeated dose toxicity do not meet the classification criteria according to Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008, and are therefore conclusive but not sufficient for classification.