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For assessing the terrestrial hazard of CdZnS, reference has been made to ecotoxicity data obtained by standard testing on CdTe, a sparingly soluble Cd-compound. Transformation dissolution data demonstrate that the solubility of Cd in CdZnS is even much lower than the solubility of Cd from CdTe (>16-50 times lower solubility of Cd in CdZnS, as compared to solubility in CdTe). The ecotoxicity of CdTe was therefore used as a worst case for the ecotoxicity of CdZnS.

For terrestrial ecotoxicology, 6 ecotoxicity studies were performed with Eisenia fetida, Folsomia candida, Lepidium sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Secale cereale and soil microbial activity as test species and CdTe as substance. The lowest NOEC was observed for Folsomia candida.

 species NOEC  (g Cd Te/kg DW) reference 
Eisenia fetida 2.1 Vito (2012f)
Folsomia candida 0.01 Notox (2012b)
Lepidium sativum 2.1 Vito (2012g)
Phaseolus vulgaris 2.1 Vito (2012g)
Secale cereale 2.1 Vito (2012h)
Soil microbial activity 2.1 CEMS (2012)

A basic assumption made in this hazard assessment and throughout this CSR, (in accordance to the same assumption made in the EU RA process) is that the ecotoxicity of CdZnS is due to the Cd++ion. As a consequence, terrestrial PNEC in this report are expressed as “cadmium”, not as CdZnS as such, because ionic cadmium is considered to be the causative factor for toxicity.