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Acute toxicity:

Acute toxicity data for fluoride (F) are available for several aquatic freshwater species covering three trophic levels (primary producers, primary and secondary consumers) and aquatic microorganisms. Furthermore, data on several aquatic saltwater species, covering two trophic levels (primary producers and secondary consumers) is available. The tables below provide an overview of the effect values for acute freshwater and saltwater toxicity of fluoride.

The freshwater algae Scenedesmus sp. was identified as the most sensitive species (96 h EC50 43.0 mg F/L, EU RAR 2001).

 

Furthermore, a 20-h NOEC value for growth inhibition of microorganism of 7.1 mg F/L (not specified) was observed (EU RAR 2001).

In recent studies, additional species representing other taxonomic groups, including aquatic plants and gastropds were tested. The lower LC/EC50 values should be viewed with caution since the corresponding tests were conducted at non-standard conditions. Chloride appears to act as a major modifying factor for fluoride toxicity. However, at standard conditions, recent data confirm that fluoride is acutely toxic to freshwater organisms.

 

The saltwater organism Mysidopsis bahia was identified as the most sensitive species with a 96 h EC50 value of 10.5 (nominal) mg F/L (EU RAR 2001).

 

Finally, it is concluded that fluoride is acutely toxic to freshwater organisms, such as algae and aquatic microorganisms.

 

Table: Overview of acute aquatic toxicity data of F in freshwater:

Species

Taxonomic group

Parameter

Endpoint

Value (mg F/L)

Reference

Oncorhynchus mykiss

fish

mortality

96 h LC50

51.0 (measured)

EU RAR 2001

Daphnia magna

crustacea

mortality

48 h EC50

97 (nominal)

EU RAR 2001

Scenedesmus sp.

algae

biomass

96 h EC50

43.0 (nominal)

EU RAR 2001

Oncorhynchus mykiss

fish

mortality 

 96 h LC50

10.4 - 150 (measured)*

Pearcy et al. 2015

Hyalella azteca

crustacea

mortality

 96 h LC50

8.1 - 50.9 (measured)*

Pearcy et al. 2015

Potamopyrgus antipodarum

gastropoda

mortality

96 h LC50

58.5 (measured)

Alonso & Carmargo 2011

Lemna minor

plant

growth

7 d IC50

391 (measured)

Pearcy et al. 2015

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

algae

growth

72 h IC50

273 (measured)

Pearcy et al. 2015

* at different hardness, alkalinity, chloride concentrations

Table: Overview of acute aquatic toxicity data of F in saltwater:

Species

Parameter

Endpoint

Value (mg F/L)

Reference

Mysidopsis bahia

not specified

96 h EC50

10.5 (nominal)

EU RAR 2001

Skeletonema costatum

biomass

96 h EC50

81.0 (nominal)

EU RAR 2001

 

 

Chronic toxicity:

Chronic toxicity data for fluoride (F) are available for several aquatic freshwater species covering three trophic levels(primary producers, primary and secondary consumers) and for one saltwater organism.The table below provides an overview of the effect values for chronic toxicity of F.

 

Freshwater fish with Onchorhynchus mykiss were identified as the most sensitive species, regarding a 21 d NOEC of 4.0 mg F/L (measured, EU RAR 2011).

 

The lowest saltwater algae 21 d NOEC value amounted to 50 mg F/L (nominal, EU RAR 2001).

In recent studies, additional species representing other taxonomic groups, including aquatic plants, insects and gastropds were tested. The lower IC10 values should be viewed with caution since the corresponding tests were conducted at non-standard conditions. Chloride appears to act as a major modifying factor for fluoride toxicity. However, at standard conditions, recent data confirm that fluoride is moderately toxic to freshwater organisms.

 

In conclusion, F is chronically toxic to freshwater organisms and has a low chronic toxicity potential to saltwater algae. 

 

Table: Overview of chronic aquatic toxicity data of F in freshwater:

Species

Taxonomic group

Parameter

Endpoint

Value (mg F/L)

Reference

Oncorhynchus mykiss

fish

mortality

21 d NOEC

4.0 (measured)

EU RAR 2001

Daphnia magna

crustacea

reproduction

21 d NOEC

8.9 (arithmetic mean)

EU RAR 2001

various freshwater algae

algae

biomass

7 d NOEC

50 (nominal)

EU RAR 2001

Uronema parduczi

algae

growth inhibition

20 h NOEC

7.1 (not specified)

EU RAR 2001

Salvelinusnamaycush

fish

embryo viability

17 d IC10

>134 (measured)

Pearcy et al. 2015

Pimephales promelas

fish

growth

7 d IC10

14.6 – 77.7 (measured)*

Peary et al. 2015

Oncorhynchus mykiss

fish

Growth & survival

7 d IC10

5.8 – 21.6 (measured)*

Peary et al. 2015

Potamopyrgus antipodarum

gastropoda

growth

28 d NOEC

4.6 (measured)

Alonso & Carmargo 2011

Ceriodaphnia dubia

crustacea

Reproduction & survival

7 d IC10

8.0 – 12.5 (measured)*

Pearcy et al. 2015

Hyalella azteca

crustacea

Growth & survival

14 d IC10

1.8 - 5.2 (measured)*

Pearcy et al. 2015

Chironomus dilutus

Insecta

Growth & survival

10 d IC20

8.2 (measured)

Pearcy et al. 2015

Lemna minor

plant

growth

7 d IC10

125 (measured)

Pearcy et al. 2015

Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

algae

growth

72 h IC10

192 (measured)

Pearcy et al. 2015

  * at different hardness, alkalinity, chloride concentrations

Table: Overview of chronic aquatic toxicity data of F in saltwater:

Species

Parameter

Endpoint

Value (mg F/L)

Reference

various saltwater algae

biomass

21 d NOEC

50 (nominal)

EU RAR 2001