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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Testing was conducted between the 28th February and 30th March 2018.
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2018
Report date:
2018

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I))
Version / remarks:
This study was performed to screen the chemical for ready biodegradability in an aerobic aqueous medium. The method is applicable to the organic test substance of Cwater : Cair ≥ 1, no inhibitory to microorganism, and no reaction with the CO2 absorbent.
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Reaction mass of 4,4'-methylenediphenol and 2,2'-methylenediphenol and o-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]phenol
EC Number:
908-912-9
Cas Number:
1333-16-0
Molecular formula:
C39H36O6
IUPAC Name:
Reaction mass of 4,4'-methylenediphenol and 2,2'-methylenediphenol and o-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]phenol
Test material form:
solid
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Chemical name : Bisphenol-F(Reaction mass of 2,2’-methylenediphenol and 4,4’-methylenediphenol and o-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]phenol)
CAS No.: 1333-16-0
Lot No. : KZ517047
Date received : 2018. 02. 27.
Amount : 38.06 g(Including container)
Expiration date : 2018. 06. 30.
Appearance : Light pink or citrine solid
Purity : 97.4 %

Molecular formula : C13H12O2
Molecular weight : 200.233 g/mol
Storage condition : Room temperature(1 ~ 30 °C)
Supplier : KUKDO Chemical Co., Ltd.
Residual Substance : Disposal

Study design

Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
other: Please see details on inoculum field below
Details on inoculum:
Inoculum used in this study was collected from 11 sites in Korea including 5 rivers (Gangjeong, Mulgeum, Gwangju, Daejeon, Paldang), 4 domestic sewage treatment plants (Dalseo, Gumi, Busan, Tancheon) and 2 industrial wastewater treatment plants(Dalseo, Yeosu). Fresh samples collected from these sites were incubated for over one month and the activated sludge greater than 10E7 cells/mL was used in this test.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Details on study design:
TEST CONDITIONS:
The test was performed in the incubator to maintain a constant temperature and the oxygen uptake was checked once a day during test period.
- Concentration of test substance : 99.8 ~ 99.9 mg/L(w/v)
- Concentration of inoculum : About 10E7 ~ 10E8 cells/L
- Test temperature: 24 - 24.8 °C
- pH: Between 6 and 8.5
- pH adjusted: yes/no
- Test period: Test period : 28 days
- Continuous darkness: yes


TEST SYSTEM
The biodegradation test was conducted according to the “The SOP of Biodegradation test” and the oxygen uptake was measured by the BOD meter equipped with 6 bottles. Reference compound, sodium benzoate, was used to check the microbial activity of treated inoculums. Test substance and reference compound were treated to be about 100 mg/L (w/v) after correcting for purity.

Six bottles for biodegradation test will be prepared as follows:
Bottle 1(Abiotic control) : Test substance(16.43 mg) + deionized water 160 mL
Bottle 2(Treatments) : Test substance(16.40 mg) + activated sludge 4.1 mL + basal culture medium 1.92 mL + deionized water 154 mL
Bottle 3(Treatments) : Test substance(16.40 mg) + activated sludge 4.1 mL + basal culture medium 1.92 mL + deionized water 154 mL
Bottle 4(Treatments) : Test substance(16.41 mg) + activated sludge 4.1 mL + basal culture medium 1.92 mL + deionized water 154 mL
Bottle 5(Activity control) : Sodium benzoate (16.09 mg) + activated sludge 4.1 mL + basal culture medium 1.92 mL + deionized water 154 mL
Bottle 6(Inoculum blank) : Activated sludge 4.1 mL + basal culture medium 1.92 mL + deionized water 154 mL

Temperature in the incubator was checked once a day during BOD measurement(28 days) using datalogger. For all test bottles, pH of the test solution was measured at the end of BOD measurement.

Results and discussion

% Degradation
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (TOC removal)
Value:
32.9
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: BOD
Details on results:
There was no environmental condition which might have affected the reliability of the test results and the test temperature was maintained at 24.0 ~ 24.8 (24.2 ± 0.2) °C during the test.

BOD concentrations of the inoculum blank(bottle 6) for 28 days were 0 ~ 33.8 mg O2/L. These values were within the acceptable range(less than 60 mg O2/L for inoculums blank) specified by the OECD guideline.

The change of BOD concentrations for the test bottles was measured by BOD meter for 28 days. The difference of replicate value for the treatments (bottle 2, 3 and 4) at the end of the test was 2.7 % which was less than 20 % specified by the OECD guideline.

The pH values at the end of BOD measurement were 7.38, 7.35 and 6.86 for test bottle 2, 3 and 4, respectively. These values were within the acceptable range (6.0 ~ 8.5 for pH) specified by the OECD guideline.

BOD5 / COD results

Results with reference substance:
The percentage biodegradations of the reference compound (Sodium benzoate) was 86.2 % after 7 days and 85.7 % after 14 days and were within the acceptable range(greater than 40 % after 7 days and 65 % after 14 days) specified by the OECD guideline.

Any other information on results incl. tables

The percentage biodegradations of test substance, Bisphenol-F(Reaction mass of 2,2’-methylenediphenol and 4,4’-methylenediphenol and o-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]phenol), based on BOD measurement were calculated within a range of 31.8 ~ 33.9 % and the average percentage biodegradation was calculated to be 32.9 % after 28 days as shown in the table below:

The percentage biodegradations of test substance by BOD meter after 14 and 28 days

Sample

Bottle No.

BOD concentration (mg O2/L)

% degradation

Avg % degradation

14 days

28 days

14 days

28 days

14 days

28 days

Abiotic control

1

5.6

5.6

N/A

N/A

Treatment 1

2

107

113

32.9

33.1

31.7

32.9

Treatment 2

3

104

115

31.7

33.9

Treatment 3

4

101

110

30.4

31.8

Inoculum blank

6

28.1

33.8

N/A

N/A

((BOD con. of treatment bot.BOD con. of bot. 6) / (ThODc of test substance × nominal con.d)) × 100

 

b: Not applicable

c: ThOD: 2.4 mg O2/L

d: Nominal conc.: 99.8, 99.8 and 99.9 mg/L(bottle 2, 3 and 4)

The percentage biodegradations based on the residual amount of test substance by HPLC analysis was calculated to be 45.6 %.

Residual amount mg/L

% degradation

Abiotic control (bottle 1)

Treatment

95.6

52

45.6

Recovery of test substance by HPLC analysis:

Replicate

Recovery (%)

|Mean +/- SD

1

94

94.0 +/- 0.8

2

93.2

3

94.8

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
not readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
The test substance could not be concluded as readily degradable by microorganisms in the aquatic environment. The average percentage biodegradation of the test substance by BOD measurement after 28 days was calculated to be 32.9 % which was less than the pass level of biodegradability (60%) specified by the OECD guideline.
Executive summary:

Microbial degradation of Bisphenol-F (Reaction mass of 2,2’-methylenediphenol and 4,4’-methylenediphenol and o-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]phenol) was performed for 28 days following Testing Guidelines for Studies of Chemicals, Section 4.3, “Biodegradation Study (Ready Biodegradability) : Modified MITI(I)” (Notification No. 2017-4, issued by the National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea on March 14, 2017) and OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, 301C, “Ready Biodegradability-MITI(I) (Adopted : 17th July 1992)”.

The results of microbial degradation of Bisphenol-F(Reaction mass of 2,2’-methylenediphenol and 4,4’-methylenediphenol and o-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]phenol) were as follows;

The percentage biodegradations of the reference compound, Sodium benzoate, observed by BOD measurement were 86.2 % after 7 days and 85.7 % after 14 days. The test was valid that the results were within the acceptable range specified by the OECD guideline.

2) The percentage biodegradations of the test substance, Bisphenol-F(Reaction mass of 2,2’-methylenediphenol and 4,4’-methylenediphenol and o-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]phenol), observed by BOD measurement were calculated with a range of 31.8 ~ 33.9 % and the average percentage biodegradation was calculated to be 32.9 % after 28 days. Therefore, these results indicate that the test substance is not biodegradable in aqueous condition. The percentage biodegradation based on the residual amount of test substance by HPLC analysis was calculated to be 45.6 %.

As a result, the test substance could not be concluded as readily degradable by microorganisms in the aquatic environment because the percentage biodegradation of the test substance by BOD measurement was less than pass level for ready biodegradability (60%) specified by the OECD guideline.