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Classification & Labelling & PBT assessment

GHS

General Information

Name:
Graphene oxide
Not classified
Implementation:
EU
Type of classification:
self-classification
Remarks:

In recent years, a number of research studies focused on the biocompatibility of graphene oxide. However, a considerable number of these used exposure routes such as intravenous injection, which are considered as worst-case scenario not transferable to human exposure, or intratracheal instillation of high doses leading to a non-realistic lung overload triggering local inflammatory responses. Nevertheless, graphene-based NM seem not to be taken up via gastrointestinal administration (Yang et al. 2013), or dermal exposure (recently summarised by the ECETOC Nano Task Force, published as Landsiedel et al., 2017). Furthermore, the bioavailability of NM after inhalation clearly depends on the particle size and the respiratory fraction. Beside the particle form (lateral size and number of graphene layers), the effects of graphene oxide also seem to depend on the physico-chemical properties influenced e.g. by the number and nature of oxygen groups and their functionalisation. 

Therefore, the specific characterisation of the test material is crucial for the assessment of its (eco-)toxicological properties, and more specific, the toxicological profile of carbon-based nanomaterials was found to be modified by the aggregate formation during exposure. However, a clear characterisation of the test items used in these studies and their modulation during treatment is often missing. Thus, for the time being a case-by-case approach is appropriate. The available data on any of the graphene oxide test material may not necessarily be relevant for the registered substance, and the hazard assessment for graphene oxide will be restricted to the specific characterisation of the registered test item described in this IUCLID dossier.

Classificationopen allclose all

Explosives
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Flammable gases and chemically unstable gases
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Aerosols
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Reason for no classification:
hazard class not assessed
Oxidising gases
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Gases under pressure
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Flammable liquids
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Flammable solids
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Self-reactive substances and mixtures
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Pyrophoric liquids
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Pyrophoric solids
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Self-heating substances and mixtures
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Substances and mixtures which in contact with water emit flammable gases
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Oxidising liquids
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Oxidising solids
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Organic peroxides
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Corrosive to metals
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
Desensitized explosives
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Acute toxicity - oral
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
Acute toxicity - dermal
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
Acute toxicity - inhalation
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Skin corrosion / irritation
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Serious eye damage / eye irritation
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Respiratory sensitisation
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
Skin sensitisation
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Aspiration hazard
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
Reproductive toxicity
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
Effects on or via lactation
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
Germ cell mutagenicity
Reason for no classification:
data inconclusive
Carcinogenicity
Reason for no classification:
data lacking
1. Specific target organ toxicity - single (STOT-SE)
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
1. Specific target organ toxicity - repeated (STOT-RE)
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute / short-term)
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Hazardous to the aquatic environment (long-term)
Reason for no classification:
data conclusive but not sufficient for classification
Hazardous to the ozone layer
Reason for no classification:
data lacking

Labelling

Signal word:
No signal word

Notes

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