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Administrative data

Endpoint:
flammable solids
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2019-01-09 - 2019-02-18
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2019
Report date:
2019

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria: Test N.1 (Test method for readily combustible solids)
Version / remarks:
Rev. 6, 2015
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EU Method A.10 (Flammability (Solids))
Version / remarks:
31 May 2018
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

1
Reference substance name:
Reaction product of Graphite, acid-treated and potassium permanganate
IUPAC Name:
Reaction product of Graphite, acid-treated and potassium permanganate
Test material form:
cream / paste
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Regarding the containing water, the sample can be seen as a paste (liquid) or as a powder (if dried). Freeze drying is not possible because it is not possible to remove the whole water. Strong van der Waals forces pull the layers more and more together keeping the water trapped.

Results and discussion

Flammable solids
Test procedure:
burning rate test: preliminary screening test
Remarks on result:
substance does not ignite and propagate combustion either by burning with flame or smouldering along 200 mm of the powder train within the 2 minutes test period

Any other information on results incl. tables

FINDINGS

Safety Pre-Test

It was observed, that the flame changed colour to orange and sparkled a lot and fizzled.

Preliminary Screening Test

In the preliminary screening test following the EU and the UN method, the test item was heated with the flame of a teclu burner. The test item sparkled a lot and abruptly expanded that the test item was spread around the heated area. No ignition occurred within two minutes.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

No ignition was observed throughout the course of the test.

The test item should be considered as not highly flammable (for EU regulations) and as non-flammable solid (for UN regulations).

As stated by the sponsor the sample contains, process-related, water. Regarding the con¬taining water the sample can be seen as a paste (liquid) or as a powder (if dried). Freeze drying is not possible because it is not possible to remove the whole water. Strong van der Waals forces pull the layers more and more together keeping the water "trapped".

The observations stated in chapter 8.2 can be explained by when the test item is stored for a long time, the material becomes more and more solid (without losing water), as the strong van der Waals forces pull the layers together more and more, keeping the water "trapped". This is an explanation for the abruptly expandation of the test-item. The loss of water needs some more time and temperature to get the water completely out of the sample and this is an abrupt process because of the "trapped" water

No observations were made which might cause doubts concerning the validity of the study outcome.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
other: EU GHS criteria not met
Conclusions:
In the preliminary screening test following the EU and the UN method, the test item was heated with the flame of a teclu burner. The test item sparkled a lot and abruptly expanded that the test item was spread around the heated area. No ignition occurred within two minutes.
Executive summary:

The Flammability of the test item was determined in a GLP-study according to EU method A.10 and UN N.1.

First, a safety test was performed. A small amount of the test item was heated on a magnesia groove with a gas burner in order to derive safety precautions. It was observed, that the flame changed colour to orange and sparkled a lot and fizzled.

In the preliminary screening test, the test item was heated with the flame of a teclu burner. The test item sparkled a lot and abruptly expanded that the test item was spread around the heated area. This behaviour can be explained by the contained water which is lost abrupt while heating. No ignition occurred within two minutes.

Therefore, the test item Graphene oxide, reaction product of Graphite, acid-treated and potassium permanganate should be considered as not highly flammable (for Eu regulations) and non-flammable solid (for uN regulations).