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bioaccumulation in aquatic species: fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
The reliability rating is a 2 because although the study did not follow a standard guideline (which did not exist for this type of study), it did follow valid scientific principles appropriate for this type of study, and the results were reviewed for reliability and assessed as valid. This study follows a standard protocol that was later agreed to by EU regulators in 2004 and is currently in draft form as part of an update to OECD TG 305.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
study report
Reference Type:
grey literature
Fish dietary bioaccumulation study, basic protocol
Bibliographic source:
Document prepared for the TC NES Subgroup on identification of PBT and vPvB substances
Reference Type:
Guidance for Evaluating In Vivo Fish Bioaccumulation Data
Thomas F Parkerton, Jon A Arnot, Anne V Weisbrod, Christine Russom, Robert A Hoke, Kent Woodburn, Theo Traas, Mark Bonnell, Lawrence P Burkhard, and Mark A Lampi
Bibliographic source:
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 4:139-155

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
This study was performed to determine the half-life and elimination rate constant for the test substance from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) tissue. The exposure to test substance was through the diet, which included a 14-day uptake phase that was followed by a 21-day depuration phase. Results are based on analyses of fish tissue on day 14 of the uptake phase, followed by days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the depuration phase.

Water quality results for some of the water batches had one pH value and several hardness values outside of the recommended ranges. Because there was no mortality in the study, those waters are not believed to have adversely affected the study.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Alkenes, C6-11 (branched), hydroformylation products, distn. residues, heavy cracked fraction
EC Number:
Molecular formula:
CnH2n+2O2. n=24-33
Alkenes, C6-11 (branched), hydroformylation products, distn. residues, heavy cracked fraction
Details on test material:
Commercial substance

Test solutions


Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Organisms were randomly selected and sequentially placed directly to the test chambers until each of 2 chambers (control and exposure diet) contained 45 organisms. To ensure that quality organisms were used for the study, fish were selected from a pool of organisms larger than that needed for the study. The study director or his designee determined organism suitability.

The fish used in this study were fed at a level of approximately 3% of their wet body weight per day. The amount of feed was adjusted at each fish-sampling period to account for the growth of the fish during the experiment and the reduced number of fish in the test chambers.

The test organisms were quarantined and observed for parasites and disease for at least 7 days prior to use in the test, and were held in dilution water at approximately 15 degrees C, that was continuously aerated to provide a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 80% of the air saturation value.
Fish were not treated for disease or parasites before use in this study. Fish were held under static conditions using biological and mechanical filtration, and were fed finfish starter (Zeigler Bros, Inc., Gardners, PA).

Study design

Route of exposure:
Test type:
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Total exposure / uptake duration:
14 d
Total depuration duration:
21 d

Test conditions

Details on test conditions:
A flow through system was used to provide a sufficient volume of dilution water to the test tanks. The flow rate was between 160 - 200 mL/minute.

The appropriate amounts of the test substance was added to the test feed to achieve nominal concentrations . A single diet was prepared containing the test substance. Untreated food was fed to the control fish. The treated and untreated diets were measured daily and fed to the fish as either one or two feedings.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal feed concentration: 502 ug/g feed. Mean measured concentration: 475 ug/g.
Reference substance (positive control):

Results and discussion

Lipid content
Lipid content:
5 %
Time point:
other: average of Day 0 depuration and Day 21 depuration.
Remarks on result:
other: % lipid not significantly different depuration 0d & 21d
Bioaccumulation factor
Conc. / dose:
475 µg/g food
1.43 dimensionless
normalised lipid fraction
Calculation basis:
kinetic, corrected for growth
Rate constantsopen allclose all
Rate constant:
growth-corrected half-life (d)
Rate constant:
growth-corrected depuration rate constant (d-1)

Any other information on results incl. tables

Substance is complex mixture. GC analysis of fish tissue allowed for elucidation of a peak of the substance. The BMF of the peak was 1.43.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

The lipid corrected BMF(lipid) of the test substance was 1.43, with a half-life of 84.4 d.
Executive summary:

The lipid corrected BMF(lipid) of the test substance was 1.43, with a half-life of 84.4 d.

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