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Exposure related observations in humans: other data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable well-documented study report which meets basic scientific principles.

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Title:
Modificazioni istopatologiche cutanee in lavoratori addetti all movimentazione di prodotti petroliferi,
Author:
Fenga C, Loreto C, Spartari G, Guarneri F, Barbaro M, Caltabiano C, Germano D.
Year:
2000
Bibliographic source:
Medicina del Lavoro 92:25-31 (Italian language).
Title:
Common dermatologic manifestations of cutaneous exposure to petroleum and its derivatives
Author:
Beasley K, Burnett J
Year:
1996
Bibliographic source:
Continuing Medical Education 58:59-62.
Title:
Petroleum and petroleum derivatives.
Author:
Rycroft R
Year:
1990
Bibliographic source:
In Occupational Skin Disease (Adams, R. ed), WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 486-502.
Title:
Dermatitis due to cutting oils, solvents, petroleum, and coal tar products
Author:
Fisher A
Year:
1995
Bibliographic source:
Fisher's Contact Dermatitis (Rietschel R., Fowler, J. eds), Williams and Wilkens, Baltimore, MD. 609.
Title:
The effects on human volunteers of exposure to air containing gasoline vapor
Author:
Davis A, Schafer L, Bell Z
Year:
1960
Bibliographic source:
Archives of Environmental Health 1:548-554.
Title:
Contact dermatitis associated with exposure to oils and coolants
Author:
Nethercott J, Holness D
Year:
1991
Bibliographic source:
Exogenous Dermatoses: Environmental Dermatitis (Meune, T., and Maibach, H., eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl. 365-373.

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Type of experience: Human

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Distillates (petroleum), light distillate hydrotreating process, low-boiling
EC Number:
270-093-2
EC Name:
Distillates (petroleum), light distillate hydrotreating process, low-boiling
Cas Number:
68410-97-9
IUPAC Name:
Distillates (petroleum), light distillate hydrotreating process, low-boiling

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

Dermal irritation

Fenga et al. (2000) examined the skin of ten refinery workers after repeated dermal exposure to low levels of petroleum products under occupational conditions. The investigators took punch biopsies and conducted a histological examination. Their overall conclusion was that "the overall histomorphological and immunological features were not specific but resembled skin reactions due to several irritative agents. Such reactions lead to contact dermatitis."

 

Beasley and Burnett (1996), citing Rycroft (1990) and Fisher (1995) reported that gasoline produces an eczematous dermatitis resulting from defatting action on the skin. More specifically, Rycroft (1990) stated that "Gasoline is a mild irritant, especially when there is contact with gasoline-soaked clothing." Fisher (1995) stated that "[A]ll solvents [ including gasoline] can cause dermatitis by dissolving the natural protective barrier of oil on the skin." He also described a chronic fissured eczema resulting from repeated contact with solvents, and included "auto mechanics who use gasoline and kerosene" among those who might have frequent solvent contact due to the use of these substances for washing. It should be noted, however, that gasoline is not intended for solvent use. Therefore, this type of contact could be considered an intentional misuse of the product.

Ocular irritation

Davis et al (1960) investigated the effects of gasoline vapor exposure on ocular irritation in human volunteers. The results of these studies indicated that exposures to levels as low as 200 ppm for 30 minutes produced some evidence of ocular effects in some individuals. However, a strong dose dependence was not observed, and, even at 1000 ppm, the ocular effects were relatively mild and reversible.

Dermal sensitization

Beasley and Burnett (1996) reported that "[A]llergic contact dermatitis is associated with exposure to petroleum additives, such as dyes and antioxidants, rather than the petroleum product themselves." This conclusion was based on a study of 51 workers with dermatitis believed to have been associated with exposure to oil and grease. Of the 51 individuals examined, 18 had allergic contact dermatitis, 23 had irritant contact dermatitis and 7 had both. Of those with a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis, all of the positive responses were related to additives in formulated products (Nethercott and Holness, 1991). Thus the human clinical literature provides little evidence that dermal contact with gasoline produces skin sensitization.