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Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Administrative data

toxicity to terrestrial arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Already evaluated by the Competent Authorities for Biocides and Existing Substance Regulations.

Data source

Reference Type:
Responses of Folsomia fimetaria (Collembola: Isotomidae) to Copper Under Different Soil Copper Contamination Histories in Relation to Risk Assessment
Scott-Fordsmand, J.J., Krogh, P.H & Weeks, J.M.
Bibliographic source:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 19: 5; 1297-1303

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
This was a non-regulatory study designed to examine the effect of copper on the survival and reproductive success of the springtail Folsomia candida.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Application method:

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Copper chloride
EC Number:
EC Name:
Copper chloride
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
copper (I) chloride
Details on test material:
IUCLID4 Test substance: other TS: Cu2+ as delivered as copper chloride
Analytical purity: no data

Sampling and analysis

Details on sampling:
at Tend

Test substrate

Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Substrate type: other: Sandy clay soil, collected from a field site (Hygum, Jylland, Denmark).
pH 6.5 -7.0, OM 3.9-5.5 %, Clay 13-16%, Background Copper concentration: 15 mg/kg; CEC 16.6 cmol/kg.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Folsomia sp.
Animal group:
Collembola (soil-dwelling springtail)
Details on test organisms:
organisms were obtained from a laboratory culture established using field-collected animals (from a noncontaminated site distant from Hygum)

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Total exposure duration:
21 d

Test conditions

Test temperature:
pH (if soil or dung study):
Photoperiod and lighting:
12h/12h light/dark regime
Details on test conditions:
Experiments were conducted in microcosms containing 30g moist soil and 20 adult Collembola. Dried Bakers' yeast was used as food source.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Two exposure regimes:
Regime A: 7 test concentrations (200-3000) + 1 control
Regime B: soil samples taken along a gradient in the field contaminated with Cu more than 70 years before: 6 test concentrations, between 15 to 2912 mg/kg.

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
21 d
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
21 d
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
600 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
21 d
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
1 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
21 d
Dose descriptor:
Effect conc.:
400 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
Basis for effect:
Remarks on result:
other: IUCLID4 note: "m" (measured/nominal)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Studentized range test (NOEC).

Any other information on results incl. tables



Water extractable copper concentrations in the field
polluted soil showed a continuous rise, with increasing
total soil copper concentrations. For the newly spiked soil
(Study 1) the water extractable copper concentration also
increased but, in this case, plateaued at approximately 800
to 900 mg total Cu/kg and then became constant (Figure 1).


For the field contaminated soil (Study 2), no adult
mortality was observed, whereas for newly spiked soil (Study
1), a 10% reduction in adult survival was observed at 813 mg
Cu/kg (p<0.05). Differences in sensitivity between males
and females were indicated as well (Figure 2 and Table 1).


Adult size was not influenced by soil copper levels when
exposing the test substances to field contaminated soil in
the laboratory. Using newly spiked soil, a 10% reduction in
adult size (females and males) was observed at 1075 mg Cu/kg
(p<0.05) (Figure 3 and Table 1). Differentiating between
the sexes, a 10% reduction occurred at 982 mg Cu/kg for
females and at 1227 mg Cu/kg for males (Table 1).


Reproductive output was not affected by field contaminated
soil in the laboratory study (Study 2). Clear effects were
observed using the newly spiked soil with reproduction being
reduced by 10% at soil copper concentrations of 337 mg Cu/kg
(p<0.05) and no reproduction occurring at 3000 mg Cu/kg
(Figure 4). Differentiating the reproductive output into
clutches, the second clutch appeared to be more sensitive
(EC10 = 310 mg Cu/kg) than the first clutch (EC10 = 407 mg
Cu/kg) (Table 1).


Using the Hygum contaminated soil (Study 2), juvenile size
was not affected, whereas using the newly spiked soil (Study
1), a clear reduction in juveniles size was found (Figure
5). With the spiked soil, a 10% reduction in size occurred
at 957 mg Cu/kg for all juveniles. Differentiating into
clutches, the first clutch (EC10 = 575 mg Cu/kg) was more
than twice as sensitive as the second clutch (1325 mg Cu/kg)
(Table 1).


All NOEC values are summarised in Tabl

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
Good quality study. NOEC data were used for the PNEC derivation. Reliable added NOEC values varied between 600 and 1000 mg/kg for mortality,
400 for reproduction and 1000 for growth.
The data from the "aged" soils are unbound.
Executive summary:


The collembolan Folsomia fimetaria was exposed in the

laboratory to a range of elevated copper concentrations

under two different contamination histories. In Study 1,

uncontaminated soil was collected from the field and spiked

with copper concentrations of 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000,

2000 and 3000 mg Cu/kg one day before the start of the

study. In Study 2 the test species were exposed to soil

collected from various points along a field contaminated

with copper for over 70 years. Copper levels were 15, 568,

954, 1495, 2095, 2672 and 2912 mg Cu/kg. After 21 days the

number of test animals were assessed for survival, growth

and reproductive success. Both soils (spiked in the

laboratory and field contaminated soil) had the following

physical-chemical properties pH 6.5-7.0; organic matter

3.9-5.5%; clay 13-16%; background copper 15 mg/kg.

An EC10 of 337 mg Cu/kg was observed for soil spiked with

copper. Using soil from a field site contaminated with

copper more than 70 years previously, no effect was observed

at concentrations as great as 2912 mg Cu/kg. Reproduction

was three time more sensitive than mortality or growth.

Differences in copper sensitivity between the sexes and

between juvenile clutches were also indicated.