Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Description of key information

In a well-conducted OECD TG 422 combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening tests with the structural related 2-Propenoic acid, C12-14-alkyl esters (mixture of CAS no. 2156-97-0 and 21643-42-5) by oral gavage in rats no toxicity occurred up to the highest administered dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAEL was determined to 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Based on these results the NOAEL of 2-Propenoic acid, dodecyl ester is also considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: US EPA OPPTS 870.3650
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Remarks:
(from the competent authority) Landesamt für Umwelt, Wasserwirtschaft und Gewerbeaufsicht Rheinland-Pfalz
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on species / strain selection:
The rat is the preferred animal species for reproduction studies according to the various test guidelines and the Wistar strain was selected.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories, Research Models and Services, Germany GmbH
- Age at study initiation: 10-11 weeks (males/females)
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing:
During the study period, the rats were housed individually in Makrolon type M III cages supplied by Becker & Co., Castrop-Rauxel, Germany (floor area of about 800 cm²), with the following exceptions:
• During overnight matings, male and female mating partners were housed together in Makrolon type M III cages.
• Pregnant animals and their litters were housed together until PND 4 (end of lactation).
• For motor activity (MA) measurements the animals were housed individually in polycarbonate cages supplied by TECNIPLAST, Hohenpeißenberg, Germany with wire covers from Ehret, Emmendingen, Germany (floor area of about 800 cm2) and small amounts of bedding material (the present supplier is documented in the raw data).
Pregnant females were provided with nesting material (cellulose wadding) toward the end of gestation.
Dust-free wooden bedding was used in this study. Wooden gnawing blocks (Type NGM E-022) supplied by Abed® Lab. and Vet. Service GmbH, Vienna, Austria, were added for environmental enrichment. The cages with the test animals were arranged on the racks in such a way that uniform experimental conditions (ventilation and light) were ensured.
- Diet (ad libitum): ground Kliba maintenance diet mouse-rat “GLP”
- Water (ad libitum): from water bottles

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-24
- Humidity (%): 30-70
- Air changes (per hr): 15
- Photoperiod: 12 hours light from 06.00-18.00h, 12 hours dark from 18.00-06.00h
- Acclimation period: 5-6 days before the beginning of the treatment period
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
The test substance was applied as a solution. To prepare this solution, the appropriate amount of test substance was weighed out depending on the desired concentration. Then, corn oil was filled up to the desired weight, subsequently released with a magnetic stirrer. The test substance preparations were produced at least once a week.
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1:1
- Length of cohabitation: max 2 weeks
- Proof of pregnancy: A vaginal smear was prepared after each mating and examined for the presence of sperm. The day on which sperm was detected was denoted gestation day (GD) 0 and the following day "GD 1".
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The analyses of the test substance preparations were carried out at the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory of Experimental Toxicology and Ecology of BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany. The study was carried out in compliance with the Principles of Good Laboratory Practice.
The stability of the test substance in corn oil for a period of 7 days at room temperature was confirmed.
Concentration control Analysis of the test substance preparations were performed in samples of all concentrations at the start of the administration period.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
After the acclimatization period, the test substance was administered orally via gavage to the F0 generation parental animals, daily. The treatment lasted up to one day prior to sacrifice.
Frequency of treatment:
daily in the morning
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 male and 10 female rats per dose group
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control:
No positive control.
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
- Mortality
A check for moribund and dead animals was made twice daily on working days and once daily on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays. If animals were in a moribund state, they were sacrificed and necropsied.
- Clinical observations
A cageside examination was conducted at least once daily for any signs of morbidity, pertinent behavioral changes and signs of overt toxicity. Abnormalities and changes were documented daily for each affected animal.
The littering and lactation behavior of the dams was generally evaluated in the mornings in combination with the daily clinical inspection of the dams. Only particular findings (e.g. inability to deliver) were documented on an individual dam basis. On weekdays (except public holidays) the parturition behavior of the dams was inspected in the afternoons in addition to the evaluations in the mornings. The day of littering was considered the 24-hour period from about 15.00 h of one day until about 15.00 h of the following day.
- Detailed clinical observations
Detailed clinical observations (DCO) were performed in all animals prior to the administration period and thereafter at weekly intervals. The findings were ranked according to the degree of severity, if applicable. The animals were transferred to a standard arena (50 × 37.5 cm with sides of 25 cm high). The following parameters were examined:
1. abnormal behavior during “handling”
2. fur
3. skin
4. posture
5. salivation
6. respiration
7. activity/arousal level
8. tremors
9. convulsions
10. abnormal movements
11. impairment of gait
12. lacrimation
13. palpebral closure
14. exophthalmus
15. feces (appearance/consistency)
16. urine
17. pupil size

- Food consumption
Generally, food consumption was determined once a week for male and female parental animals, with the following exceptions:
• Food consumption was not determined during the mating period (male and female F0 animals).
• Food consumption of the F0 females with evidence of sperm was determined on GD 0, 7, 14 and 20.
• Food consumption of F0 females, which gave birth to a litter was determined for PND 4.
Food consumption was not determined in females without positive evidence of sperm (during the mating period of dams used in parallel) and females without litter (during the lactation period of dams used in parallel) and in males after the premating period.

- Body weight data
Body weight was determined before the start of the administration period in order to randomize the animals. During the administration period body weight was determined on study day 0 (start of the administration period) and thereafter once a week at the same time of the day (in the morning). The body weight change of the animals was calculated from these results.
The following exceptions are notable for the female animals:
• During the mating period the parental females were weighed on the day of positive evidence of sperm (GD 0) and on GD 7, 14 and 20.
• Females with litter were weighed on the day of parturition (PND 1) and on PND 4.
• Females without a litter and without positive evidence of sperm in the vaginal smear were weighed weekly. These body weight data were solely used for the calculations of the dose volume.

- Functional observational battery
A functional observational battery was performed in the first five male animals per test group, the first 5 female animals with litter of all test groups at the end of the administration period starting at about 10.00 h. The FOB started with passive observations without disturbing the animals, followed by removal from the home cage, open field observations
in a standard arena and sensorimotor tests as well as reflex tests. The findings were ranked according to the degree of severity, if applicable. The observations were performed at random.

- Home cage observations:
The animals were observed in their closed home cages; during this period any disturbing activities (touching the cage or rack, noise) were avoided during these examinations in order not to influence the behavior of the animals. Attention was paid to:
1. Posture
2. Tremors
3. Convulsions
4. Abnormal movements
5. Impairment of gait
Open field observations:

The animals were transferred to a standard arena (50 × 50 cm with sides of 25 cm height) and observed for at least 2 minutes. The following parameters were examined:
1. Behavior when removed from cage
2. Fur
3. Skin
4. Salivation
5. Nose discharge
6. Lacrimation
7. Eyes/ pupilsize
8. Posture
9. Palpebral closure
10. Respiration
11. Tremors
12. Convulsions
13. Abnormal movements/ stereotypes
14. Impairment of gait
15. Activity/ arousal level
16. Feces excreted within 2 minutes (number/ appearance/ consistency)
17. Urine excreted within 2 minutes (amount/ color)
18. Rearing within 2 minutes

- Sensory motor tests/ reflexes:
The animals were then removed from the open field and subjected to following sensory motor or reflex tests:
1. Reaction to an object being moved towards the face (Approach response)
2. Touch sensitivity (Touch response)
3. Vision (Visual placing response)
4. Pupillary reflex
5. Pinna reflex
6. Audition (Auditory startle response)
7. Coordination of movements (Righting response)
8. Behavior during handling
9. Vocalization
10. Pain perception (Tail pinch)
11. Grip strength of forelimbs
12. Grip strength of hindlimbs
13. Landing foot-splay test
14. Other findings

- Motor activity assessment
Motor activity (MA) was also measured from 14:00 h onwards on the same day as the FOB was performed in the first five parental males and females (with litter) per group. Motor activity was measured on the same day as FOB was performed. The examinations were performed using the TSE Labmaster System supplied by TSE Systems GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany. For this purpose, the animals were placed in new clean polycarbonate cages with a small amount of bedding for the duration of the measurement. Eighteen beams were allocated per cage. The numbers of beam interrupts was counted over 12 intervals of 5 minutes per interval. The sequence in which the animals were placed in the cages was selected at random. On account of the time needed to place the rats in the cages, the starting time was "staggered" for each animal. The measurement period began when the 1st beam was interrupted and finished exactly 1 hour later. No food or water was offered to the animals during these measurements and the measurement room was darkened after the transfer of the last animal.


Clinical pathology

In the morning blood was taken from the retrobulbar venous plexus from fasted animals.
The animals were anaesthetized using isoflurane (Isoba®, Essex GmbH Munich, Germany). The blood sampling procedure and subsequent analysis of blood and serum samples were carried out in a randomized sequence. For urinalysis the individual animals were transferred to metabolism cages (withdrawal of food and water) and urine was collected overnight. Urine samples were evaluated in a randomized sequence. The following examinations were carried out in the first 5 surviving parental males and the first 5 surviving females with litter (in order of delivery) per group:

- Hematology
The following parameters were determined in blood with EDTA-K3 as anticoagulant using a particle counter (Advia 120 model; Bayer, Fernwald, Germany): Furthermore, blood smears were prepared and stained according to WRIGHT without being evaluated, because of non-ambiguous results of the differential blood cell counts measured by the automated instrument. (reference: Hematology: Principles and
Procedures, 6th Edition, Brown AB, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1993, page 101).

Parameters: Leukocyte count, Erythrocyte count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Mean corpuscular volume, Mean corpuscular
hemoglobin, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, Platelet count, Differential blood count, Reticulocytes, Prothrombin time

- Clinical chemistry
Parameters: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (L-alanine: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (L-aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (orthophosphoric acid monoester phosphohydrolase; γ-Glutamyltransferase
(GGT) (γ -glutamyl) peptide: aminoacid-γ- glutamyl-transferase; Sodium (Na+), Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Inorganic phosphorus, Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Total bilirubin, Total proteins, Albumin,Total cholesterol, Triglycerides , Biles acids

- Urinalysis (parameters)
pH, Protein, Glucose, Ketones, Urobilinogen, Bilirubin, Blood, Specific gravity, Sediment Color, turbidity, Volume
Litter observations:
-. Pup number and status at delivery
All pups delivered from the F0 parents were examined as soon as possible on the day of birth to determine the total number of pups and the number of liveborn and stillborn pups in each litter. Pups, which died before the first determination of their status on the day of birth, were defined as stillborn pups.

- Pup viability/mortality
In general, a check was made for any dead or moribund pups twice daily on workdays (once in the morning and once in the afternoon) or as a rule, only in the morning on Saturdays, Sundays or public holidays. The number and percentage of dead pups on the day of birth (PND 0) and of pups dying between PND 1 - 4 (lactation period) were determined. Pups which died accidentally or were sacrificed due to maternal death were not included in these calculations. The number of live pups/litter was calculated on the day after birth, and on lactation day 4. The viability index was calculated.

- Sex ratio
On the day of birth (PND 0) the sex of the pups was determined by observing the distance between the anus and the base of the genital tubercle; normally, the anogenital distance is considerably greater in male than in female pups. The sex of the pups was finally
confirmed at necropsy. The sex ratio was calculated at day 0 and day 4 after birth.

- Pup clinical observations
The live pups were examined daily for clinical symptoms (including gross-morphological findings) during the clinical inspection of the dams.

- Pup body weight data
The pups were weighed on the day after birth (PND 1) and on PND 4. Pups' body weight change was calculated from these results.
The individual weights were always determined at about the same time of the day (in the morning). “Runts” were defined on the basis of the body weights on PND 1. "Runts" are pups that weigh less than 75% of the mean weight of the respective control pups.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
Necropsy
All parental animals were sacrificed by decapitation under isoflurane anesthesia. The exsanguinated animals were necropsied and assessed by gross pathology; special attention was given to the reproductive organs.

Weight parameters
The following weights were determined in all animals sacrificed on schedule:
1. Anesthetized animals
2. Epididymides
3. Testes
The following weights were determined in 5 animals per sex/test group sacrificed on schedule (females with litters only, same animals as used for clinical pathological examinations):
1. Adrenal glands
2. Brain
3. Heart
4. Kidneys
5. Liver
6. Spleen
7. Thymus

Organ/tissue fixation
The following organs or tissues of all parental animals were fixed in 4% buffered formaldehyde solution or modified Davidson’s solution:
1. All gross lesions
2. Adrenal glands
3. Aorta
4. Bone marrow (femur)
5. Brain
6. Cecum
7. Cervix
8. Coagulating gland
9. Colon
10. Duodenum
11. Eyes with optic nerve
12. Esophagus
13. Extraorbital lacrimal glands
14. Epididymides (modified Davidson’s solution)
15. Femur with knee joint
16. Heart
17. Ileum
18. Jejunum (with Peyer’s patches)
19. Kidneys
20. Larynx
21. Liver
22. Lungs
23. Lymph nodes (axillary and mesenteric)
24. Mammary gland (male and female)
25. Nose (nasal cavity)
26. Ovaries (modified Davidson’s solution)
27. Oviducts
28. Pancreas
29. Parathyroid glands
30. Pharynx
31. Pituitary gland
32. Prostate gland
33. Rectum
34. Salivary glands (mandibular and sublingual)
35. Sciatic nerve
36. Seminal vesicles
37. Skeletal muscle
38. Spinal cord (cervical, thoracic and lumbar cord)
39. Spleen
40. Sternum with marrow
41. Stomach (forestomach and glandular stomach)
42. Testes (modified Davidson’s solution)
43. Thymus
44. Thyroid glands
45. Trachea
46. Urinary bladder
47. Uterus
48. Vagina

- Histopathology
Fixation was followed by histotechnical processing, examination by light microscopy and assessment of findings from the following organs of all animals/test group, all animals affected/test group or 5 animals per sex/test group, females with litters only, same animals as used for
clinical pathological examinations.
Special attention was given to stages of spermatogenesis in the male gonads.
A correlation between gross lesions and histopathological findings was attempted.

Organs:
Adrenal glands, All gross lesions, Bone marrow (femur) , Brain, Cecum, Cervix, Coagulating glands, Colon, Duodenum, Epididymides, Heart,
Ileum, Jejunum, Kidneys, Live, Lungs, Lymph nodes (axillary and mesenteric, Ovaries , Oviducts, Prostate gland, Peyer’s patches , Rectum,
Sciatic nerve , Seminal vesicles, Spinal cord (cervical, thoracic, lumbar) , Spleen, Stomach (forestomach and glandular stomach), Testes , Thymus , Thyroid glands , Trachea , Urinary bladder , Uterus , Vagina

Postmortem examinations (offspring):
- Pup necropsy observations
All pups with scheduled sacrifice on PND 4 were sacrificed under isoflurane anesthesia with CO2. All pups were examined externally and eviscerated; their organs were assessed macroscopically.
All stillborn pups and all pups that died before PND 4 were examined externally, eviscerated and their organs were assessed macroscopically. All pups without notable findings or abnormalities were discarded after their macroscopic evaluation. Animals with notable findings or abnormalities were evaluated on a case-bycase basis, depending on the type of finding noted.
Statistics:
For parameters with bidirectional changes:
Non-parametric one-way analysis using KRUSKAL-WALLIS test. If the resulting p-value was equal or less than 0.05, a pairwise comparison of each dose group with the control group was performed using WILCOXON-test (twosided) for the hypothesis of equal medians.
For parameters with unidirectional changes:
Pairwise comparison of each dose group with the control group using the WILCOXON-test (one-sided) for the hypothesis of equal medians.
Reproductive indices:
The following indeces were determined: mating and fertility index for both males and females, gestation index, live birth index
Offspring viability indices:
The following indices were determined: sex ratio and viability index
Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Detailed clinical observations
One female animal of test group 3 (No.138) showed a swelling of the left mouth region on study days 21 and 28.
No other abnormal clinical signs in all test groups were observed.

Summary clinical observations for males and females
Slight to moderate salivation in 3 male animals of test groups 2 and all male animals of test group 3 was observed after treatment in the pre-mating period.
Slight to moderate salivation in 4 male animals of test groups 2 and all male animals of test group 3 was observed after treatment in the mating period.
Slight to moderate salivation in 5 male animals of test groups 2 and all male animals of test group 3 was observed after treatment in the post-mating period.
Slight to moderate salivation in 1 female animal of test groups 2 and in 7 female animals of test group 3 was observed after treatment in the pre-mating period.
Slight to moderate salivation in 1 female animal of test groups 2 and in 7 female animals of test group 3 was observed after treatment in the mating period.
Animal No. 126 (mated with Animal No. 26) did not show sperm in vaginal smear.

Summary clinical observations for females during gestation
Animal No. 138 of test group 3 showed a swelling of the left mouth region from gestation day 1 to 17. Because of a single incidence this finding was assessed as being incidental.
Animal Nos. 123, 125, 127 and 128 of test group 2 showed slight salivation after treatment. All animals of test group 3 showed slight to moderate salivation after treatment. These findings were substance-related because of the smelling of the test substance, but no adverse effects.
Animal Nos. 123 and 127 of test group 2 and animal No. 131 and 134 of test group 3 did not deliver any pups. These findings were assessed as being spontaneous in nature and without biological relevance.
Animal No. 109 of control group showed apathy and reduced nutritional condition on gestation day 23.

No other clinical signs were observed.

Clinical observations for females during lactation
Animal Nos. 125 and 128 of test group 2 showed slight salivation after treatment on different study days.
Animal Nos. 132, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139 and 140 of test group 3 showed slight to moderate salivation after treatment on different lactation days.
These findings were substance-related because of the smelling of the test substance, but no adverse effects.
Animal No. 109 of the control group showed a complete litter loss after insufficient after-birth and maternal care. Due to the reduced nutritional condition and the apathy, this animal was sacrificed in a moribund state on lactation day 1.
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence):
Animal No. 109 was sacrificed in a moribund state on lactation day 1.
No other animal died prematurely in the present study.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Body weight of females of test group 2 (300 mg/kg bw/d) was significantly decreased on gestation day 20 (-5.4%).
Body weight change was significantly decreased in females of test group 3 (1000 mg/kg bw/d) when regarding the premating period from day 0 to day 13 (-6.1%).
Due to the lack of dose response relationship these findings were assessed as being incidental.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The food consumption was significantly increased (+10.7%) on day 7 in males of test group 3 (1000 mg/kg bw/d) during premating period.
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Functional observational battery
Deviations from "zero values" were obtained in several rats. However, as most findings were equally distributed between test-substance treated groups and controls, were without a dose-response relationship or occurred in single rats only, these observations were considered as incidental.
The following examinations were performed during FOB and are assessed individually:
Home cage observations
No test substance-related effects were observed.
Open field observations
No test substance-related effects were observed.
Sensorimotor tests/reflexes
No test substance-related effects were observed.
Quantitative Parameters
No test substance-related effects were observed.

Motor activity measurement
Comparing the single intervals with the control groups, no significant deviations were measured with the exception of slightly decreased values in all interval in males of test group 3 (1000 mg/kg bw/d). As a consequence, the overall motor activity measurement in male animals of test group 3 was significantly decreased. As no FOB parameter was changed and no findings occurred during DCO, the change was assessed as being spontaneous and not related to treatment.
No changes were noted for male animals of test groups 1 and 2 (100 and 300 mg/kg bw/d) as well as female animals of test groups 1-3 (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d) when compared to the control group.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Animal No. 109 showed multifocal necroses in the kidney correlating to red foci in the macroscopic diagnosis. The uterus was necrotic with inflammation, fetal tissue was no longer recognizable histologically. Both findings are likely to have contributed to the moribund state of this animal.
Male animal Nos.23 and 26 showed macroscopically a focus on the liver which correlated histologically with focal necrosis. This was not considered to be treatment – related as it was focal and not present in test group 3.
All other findings occurred either individually or were biologically equally distributed over control and treatment groups. They were considered to be incidental or spontaneous in origin and without any relation to treatment.

Fertility
Three mating pairs of test group 2 ([300 mg/kg bw/day] Nos. 23/123, 26/126, 27/127) and two pairs of test group 3 ([1000 mg/kg bw/day] 31/131, 34/134) were recorded as no offspring/ not pregnant. None of the examined animals showed relevant histopathological findings (134 [stomach erosion/ulcus], 23 [liver necrosis], 26 [liver necrosis], 34 [no lesions], 31 [thyroid hypertrophy/hyperplasia, grade 1].
These findings were not considered to be treatment - related and spontaneous in origin.
Male mating index
For F0 parental males, which were placed with females to generate F1 pups, mating was confirmed, except for animal No. 26. The male mating index was 90% in test group 2 (300 mg/kg bw/d) and 100% in all other test groups.
This finding reflected the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study as all respective values were within the range of the historical control data.

Male fertility index
Fertility was proven for all of the F0 parental males within the scheduled mating interval to produce F1 litter.
Two males of test group 3 (No. 31 mated with 131 and No. 34 mated with No. 134), three males of test group 2 (No. 23 mated with female No. 123, No. 26 mated with female No. 126 and No. 27 mated with No. 127) did not generate F1 pups.
The male fertility index was between the range of 70% and 100%.
This finding reflected the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study as all respective values were within the range of the historical control data.

Female mating index
The female mating index calculated after the mating period for F1 litter was between 90% in test group 2 (300 mg/kg bw/d) and 100% for all other test groups. The mean duration until sperm was detected (GD 0) was 2.7, 2.0, 1.6 and 2.0 days in test groups 0 - 3.

Female fertility index
All sperm positive rats delivered pups with the exception of female Nos. 131 and 134 (test group 3; 1000 mg/kg bw/d) and Nos.123, 126 and 127 (test group 2; 300 mg/kg bw/d), which were mated with male Nos. 31, 34 and 23, 26 and 27, did not become pregnant. The female fertility index was 80% in the high dose group, 77.8% in the mid dose group and 100% in the low and control group.
Female animals Nos. 131, 134, and 127 which delivered no pups, showed no implantation sites.
These data reflect the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study as all respective values were within the range of the historical control data.

Gestation index
The gestation index was 100% in all test groups.

Live birth indices
The live birth index was 100% in all test groups.
Three females (Nos. 133, 135 and 140) in test group 3 (1000 mg/kg bw/d) and two females (Nos. 104 and 109) in test group 0 (0 mg/kg bw/d) with single stillborn and found dead pups were observed.

Postimplantation loss
The postimplantation loss was between 2.96% (test group 0), 3.41% (test group 1), 5.56% (test group 2) and 2.53% (test group 3).
The values were in the range of the historical control data.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed.
Critical effects observed:
no
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The surviving F1 pups of any test group did not show adverse clinical signs up to scheduled sacrifice on PND 4.
Mortality / viability:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The viability index indicating pup mortality during lactation (PND 0 - 4) was 90% in test group 0 and 100 % in test groups 1 - 3.
The value of test group 0 was in the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Mean pup body weights/pup body weight changes of all pups in all test groups were comparable to the control group.
In test group 1 (100 mg/kg bw/d) one female runt was seen (Animal No. 118).
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Two stillborn pups of test group 0 showed post mortem autolysis (Animal no. 109). Two found dead pups of test group 0 (animal No. 109) showed an empty stomach.
These findings were assessed as being spontaneous in nature and without biological relevance, because of the insufficient after-birth and maternal care of the female no. 109.
Pup number and status at delivery
The mean number of delivered F1 pups was 13.9 (test group 0), 11.9 (test group 1), 10.7 (test group 2) and 10.9 (test group 3).
The decreased values of test group 2 and test group 3 were consequent to the increase of the mean number of delivered pups in the control group, which were higher than the historical control data.
The three stillborn pups in test group 3 and six stillborn pups in test group 0 were incidental and in the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study.

Sex ratio
TThe sex distribution and sex ratios of live F1 pups on the day of birth and PND 4 did not show substantial differences between the control and the test substance-treated groups; slight differences were regarded to be spontaneous in nature.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No adverse effects observed.
Critical effects observed:
no
Reproductive effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
The NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) for general, systemic toxicity was 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
The NOAEL for reproductive performance and fertility was 1000 mg/kg bw/day for the F0 parental rats.
The NOAEL for developmental toxicity in the F1 progeny was found to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

The test substance was administered orally via gavage to groups of 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats (F0 animals) at dose levels of 0 mg/kg bw/day (test group 0), 100 mg/kg bw/day (test group 1), 300 mg/kg bw/day (test group 2) and 1000 mg/kg bw/day (test group 3).

The objective of the study was to detect possible effects of the test substance on the integrity and performance of male and female reproductive systems including gonadal function, mating behavior, conception, gestation and parturition. Furthermore, it was intended to obtain information about the general toxicological profile including target organs and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) after repeated oral administration. The duration of treatment covered a 2 -week pre-mating and mating period in both sexes, approximately 1 week post-mating in males, and the entire gestation period as well as 4 days of lactation and two weeks thereafter in females.

The parents' and the pups' state of health was checked each day, and parental animals were examined for their mating and reproductive performances.

After 2 weeks of premating treatment the F0 animals were mated to produce F1 generation pups. Mating pairs were from the same test group. Mating was discontinued as soon as sperm was detected in the vaginal smear. F0 animals were examined for their reproductive performance including determinations of the number of implantations and the calculation of the postimplantation loss in all F0 females.

A detailed clinical observation (DCO) was performed in all animals before initial test substance administration and, as a rule, thereafter at weekly intervals.

Food consumption of the F0 parents was determined once weekly during premating. In dams food consumption was determined for gestation days 0 - 7, 7 - 14, 14 - 20 and lactation days 1 - 4.

Body weights of F0 parents were determined once a week, in males throughout the study and in females during premating and mating. During gestation and lactation period, F0 females were weighed on gestation days (GD) 0, 7, 14 and 20, on the day of parturition (postnatal day [PND] 0) and on PND 4.

The pups were sexed and examined for macroscopically evident changes on PND 0. They were weighed on PND 1 and on PND 4. Their viability was recorded. At necropsy on PND 4, all pups were sacrificed under isoflurane anesthesia with CO2 and examined macroscopically for external and visceral findings.

Clinicochemical and hematological examinations as well as urinanalyses were performed in 5 animals per sex and group towards the end of the administration period.

Towards the end of the administration period a functional observational battery was performed and motor activity was measured in 5 animals per sex and test group.

All F0 parental animals were sacrificed by decapitation, under isoflurane anesthesia, and were assessed by gross pathology. Weights of selected organs were recorded and a histopathological examination was performed.

The various analyses confirmed the stability of the test substance in corn oil at room temperature over a period of 7 days and the correctness of the prepared concentrations of the test substance preparations in corn oil.

The following test substance-related adverse findings were noted:

- Test group 3: 1000 mg/kg bw/day

No test substance-related adverse findings were noted neither in parental animals nor in the pups.

- Test group 2: 300 mg/kg bw/day

No test substance-related adverse findings were noted neither in parental animals nor in the pups.

- Test group 1: 100 mg/kg bw/day

No test substance-related adverse findings were noted neither in parental animals nor in the pups.

The NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) for general, systemic toxicity was 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

The NOAEL for reproductive performance and fertility was 1000 mg/kg bw/day for the F0 parental rats.

The NOAEL for developmental toxicity in the F1 progeny was found to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test (OECD 422) (Read across)

In a well performed OECD TG 422 / GLP study, 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats received the test item Laurylacrylate 1214 (read across approach) by daily oral gavage administration for 14 days before mating, through mating, gestation and the beginning of the lactation period (until day 4 post-partum, p.p.). The dose-levels were 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day.

The study included check of clinical signs and mortality, body weight and food consumption, investigation of Functional Observation Battery; (FOB)) and motor activity, blood and urine analysis, macroscopic and microscopic examination, observation and examination of pups.

Regarding clinical examinations, nosigns of general systemic toxicity were observed in male or female parental animals of test groups 1-3 (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d) during the entire study period.

Regarding fertility and reproductive performance, no signs of toxicity were observed in male or female parental animals of all test groups (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d) during the entire study.

Regarding developmental toxicity, no biologically relevant signs of toxicity were observed in male or female pups of all test groups (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d).

Regarding clinical pathology, no treatment-related, adverse effects were observed up to a dose of the compound of 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

Regarding pathology, the liver of male animals of test group 2 and 3 (300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively) showed an increase in absolute (group 3 only) and relative weights which was regarded to be adaptive and non-adverse in the absence of histological findings.

All other findings recorded were considered to be incidental in nature and not related to treatment.

Thus, under the conditions of this reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) for reproductive performance and fertility was 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

The NOAEL for developmental toxicity in the F1 progeny was found to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

The NOAEL for general, systemic toxicity was 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

Conclusion: Based on these results the NOAEL of 2 -Propenoic acid, dodecyl ester is also considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information

In a well-conducted OECD TG 422 combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening tests with the structural analogue 2-Propenoic acid, C12-14-alkyl esters (mixture of CAS no. 2156-97-0 and 21643-42-5) by oral gavage in rats no toxicity occurred up to the highest administered dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAEL was determined to 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

In an experimental inhalation study with ethylhexyl acrylate no developmental toxicity occured up to the highest dose of 100 ppm.

Based on these results the NOAEL of 2-Propenoic acid, octadecyl ester is also considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Groups of 20-29 bred female rats (17-25 pregnant) were exposed to the compound 6h/day on days 6 through 20 of gestation by inhalation. Control animals were exposed concurrently to filtered room air. The test concentrations of ethylhexyl acrylate were 50, 75, and 100 ppm (corresponding to approx. 0.38, 0.56, and 0.75 mg/L)*.
* Calculation of concentrations (mg/L) based on Derelanko MJ (2000). Toxicologist's Pocket Handbook, CRC Press, conversion table, p. 57
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: IFFA CREDO Breeding Laboratories (Saint-Germain-sur-l' Arbresle, France)
- Age at study initiation: Young, nulliparous females
- Weight at study initiation: 200-220 g
- Housing: Single in clear polycarbonate cages with stainless-steel wire lids and hardwood shaving as bedding.
- Diet: Food pellets (UAR Alimentation Villemoisson, France), ad libitum
- Water: Filtered tap water, ad libitum

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 21 ± 2
- Humidity (%): 50 ± 5
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hrs dark/12 hrs light
Route of administration:
inhalation: vapour
Type of inhalation exposure (if applicable):
whole body
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
EXPOSURE
Exposures were conducted in 200-L glass/stainless-steel inhalation chambers with dynamic and adjustable laminar air flow (6-20 m3/h). The chamber temperature was set at 23 ± 2°C, and the relative humidity at 50 ± 5 %. The air-flow rate passed through the fritted disk of a heated bubbler containing the test chemical. Concentrations of acrylate ester were monitored continuously with a gas-chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and an automatic gas-sampling valve. In addition, exposure levels were determined once during each 6-h exposure period by collecting atmosphere samples through glass tubes packed with activated charcoal. The charcoal samples were then desorbed with carbon disulfide. The resulting samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using appropriate internal standards. Since 2-EHA has a rather low vapour pressure (0.14 mm Hg at 20 °C), the presence of liquid particles was evaluated at the highest concentration generated (i.e. 100 ppm). Airborn particles were measured with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer.
No differences in particle counts were observed between the clean filtered air (control) and the vapor-laden air in the exposure chambers.

GENERATION OF TEST ATMOSPHERE / CHAMBER DESCRIPTION
- Exposure apparatus: Glass/stainless-steel inhalation chambers
- Source and rate of air: Test atmospheres were generated through an additional air-flow  rate passed through the fritted disk of a heated bubbler containing ethylhexyl acrylate.  The vaporized compound was introduced into the main air inlet pipe of the exposure chamber.
- Air flow rate: 6-20 m3/h

TEST ATMOSPHERE
- Brief description of analytical method used: GC/FID
- Samples taken from breathing zone: yes
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Analytical concentrations (mean ± SD):
51.0 ± 4.3 ppm (nominal: 50 ppm)
75.4 ± 9.2 ppm (nominal: 75 ppm)
102.5 ± 7.9 ppm (nominal: 100 ppm)
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/2-3
- Length of cohabitation: Overnight
- Proof of pregnancy: sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
day 6-20 of gestation
Frequency of treatment:
6h /day
Duration of test:
until gestation day 21
Dose / conc.:
50 ppm (nominal)
Remarks:
corresponding to approx. 0.38
Dose / conc.:
75 ppm (nominal)
Remarks:
corresponding to approx. 0.56 mg/L
Dose / conc.:
100 ppm (nominal)
Remarks:
corresponding to approx. 0.75 mg/L
No. of animals per sex per dose:
20
Control animals:
yes, sham-exposed
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
Exposure concentrations were based on preliminary studies. Only minimal maternal toxicity was observed after exposure to 90 ppm ethylhexyl acrylate. Nevertheless, l00 ppm ethylhexyl acrylate was used as the highest concentration for the definitive developmental toxicity study, since preliminary level-setting studies have indicated that 100 ppm was the highest reliable vapor concentration technically possible.
Maternal examinations:
BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: On gestation day (GD) 0, 6, 13 and 21.

FOOD CONSUMPTION: YES
Food consumption was measured for the intervals GD 6-13 and 13-21.

POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS: Yes
- Sacrifice on gestation day 21
- Organs examined: The uteri were removed and weighed. The number of implantation sites, resorptions, and dead and live fetuses were recorded.
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes
The number of implantation sites, resorptions, and dead and live fetuses were recorded. Uteri which had no visible implantation sites were stained with ammonium sulfide (10 %) to detect very early resorptions.

Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: No data
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
Fetal examinations:
Live fetuses were weighed, sexed, and examined for external anomalies including those of the oral cavity. Half of the live fetuses from each litter were preserved in Bouin's solution and examined for internal soft tissue changes. The other half were fixed in ethanol (70 %), eviscerated, and then processed for skeletal staining with alizarin red S for subsequent skeletal examination.

- External examinations: Yes: all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Skeletal examinations: Yes: half per litter
- Head examinations: Yes: all per litter
Statistics:
Data were presented as mean ± SD. The number of  implantation sites and live fetuses and the various body weights were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett's test if differences were found. The percentages of non-live  implants and  resorptions and the proportions of fetuses with alterations in each litter were evaluated by using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Dixon-Massey test where appropriate. Rates of pregnancy, fetal sex ratio, and percentage of litters with malformations or external, visceral, or skeletal variations were analyzed by using Fisher's test. Where applicable, least-squares analysis was carried out. For all statistical tests, the level of significance was set a priori at alpha = 0.05.
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes

Details on maternal toxic effects:
No test dams died. Except for a significant decrease in absolute weight gain at 100 ppm, there were no significant changes in maternal weight gain of females exposed to ethylhexyl acrylate, compared of those of controls. Rats from the 100 ppm-group showed a significant decrease in food intake throughout the entire exposure period (8-11 % reduction).
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
ca. 0.56 mg/L air (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
No adverse effects were observed on the mean number of implantations and live fetuses among litters exposed to ethylhexyl acrylate. The statistically significant reductions in the incidence of non-live implants and resorptions at 50 and 100 ppm were not considered to be of toxicological significance. There was a statistically significant trend toward decreased fetal body weights, but the pairwise comparisons to the concurrent control group were not significantly different. No significant differences were observed between control and treated groups in the incidence of fetal malformations or variations.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
Effect level:
ca. 0.75 mg/L air (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: teratogenicity
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Maternal body weights:

Concentration [ppm/6h/d]

Maternal body weight GD 6 [g]

Absolute weight gain [g]

0

289 ± 17

42 ± 11

50

294 ± 19

35 ± 15

75

299 ± 21

32 ± 18

100

292 ± 18

24 ± 16**

Absolute weight gain: (Day 21 body weight) - (gravid uterus weight) - (Day 6 body weight)

Reproductive parameters:

 

Conc. [ppm/6h/d]

No. of litters

No. of implantation sites/litter

% of non-live implants/litter

% of resorption sites/litter

No. of live fetuses/litter

Average fetal body weight/litter [g]

0

25

15.64 ± 2.87

10.12 ± 10.57

10.12±10.57

14.20 ± 3.57

 5.74 ± 0.33

50

24

15.42 ± 4.23

3.65 ± 5.26*

3.65 ± 5.26*

14.88 ± 4.21

 5.69 ± 0.41

75

23

16.30 ± 3.80

6.44 ± 8.26

6.07 ± 7.97

15.26 ± 3.99

 5.58 ± 0.40

100

23

15.96 ± 2.46

3.93 ± 4.54*

3.93 ± 4.54*

15.30 ± 2.27

 5.53 ± 0.31

Concentration [ppm/6h/d]

0

50

75

100

Mean % of fetuses with:

- any malformations/litter

0.27 ± 1.33

1.89 ± 6.91

0.94 ± 2.54

0

- external variations/litter

0

4.41 ± 20.39

0

0

- visceral variations/litter

2.46 ± 5.98

7.33 ± 14.90

8.27 ± 11.36

4.76 ± 10.54

- skeletal variations/litter

20.62 ± 20.98

22.34 ± 18.63

17.40 ± 21.21

16.30 ± 15.21

- any variations/litter

11.86 ± 10.96

19.09 ± 21.09

12.78 ± 11.49

10.62 ± 10.63

* ,** Significant differences from the control (0 ppm) value, p 0.05, and p 0.01, respectively.

Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Effect on developmental toxicity: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEC
750 mg/m³
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Effect on developmental toxicity: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test (OECD 422) (Read across)

In a well performed OECD TG 422 / GLP study, 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats received the test item 2-Propenoic acid, C12-14-alkyl esters (mixture of CAS no. 2156-97-0 and 21643-42-5) (read across approach) by daily oral gavage administration for 14 days before mating, through mating, gestation and the beginning of the lactation period (until day 4 post-partum, p.p.). The dose-levels were 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day.

The study included check of clinical signs and mortality, body weight and food consumption, investigation of Functional Observation Battery; (FOB)) and motor activity, blood and urine analysis, macroscopic and microscopic examination, observation and examination of pups.

Regardingclinical examinations, nosigns of general systemic toxicity were observed in male or female parental animals of test groups 1-3 (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d) during the entire study period.

Regarding fertility and reproductive performance, no signs of toxicity were observed in male or female parental animals of all test groups (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d) during the entire study.

Regarding developmental toxicity, no biologically relevant signs of toxicity were observed in male or female pups of all test groups (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d).

Regarding clinical pathology, no treatment-related, adverse effects were observed up to a dose of the compound of 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

Regarding pathology, the liver of male animals of test group 2 and 3 (300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively) showed an increase in absolute (group 3 only) and relative weights which was regarded to be adaptive and non-adverse in the absence of histological findings.

All other findings recorded were considered to be incidental in nature and not related to treatment.

Thus, under the conditions of this reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) for reproductive performance and fertility was 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

The NOAEL for developmental toxicity in the F1 progeny was found to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

The NOAEL for general, systemic toxicity was 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

Saillenfait et al., 1999, (Read across)

2-EHA was investigated during a study on the relative developmental toxicities of a set of various acrylates (acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl acrylate, hydroxypropyl acrylate) in Sprague-Dawley rats. For the investigation with 2-EHA groups of 23 to 25 dams were exposed (6 hours/day, whole-body) to atmospheres containing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (99.7 % purity) at 0, 50, 75, and 100 ppm (approximately 0.38, 0.56, and 0.75 mg/L) during day 6 to day 20 of gestation. Maternal food consumption was measured for the intervals of g.d. 6-13 and of g.d. 13-21. Maternal body weights were recorded on g.d . 0, 6, 13, and 2l. Dams were sacrificed on day 21 of gestation and the uteri were removed and weighed. The number of implantation sites, resorptions, and dead and live fetuses were recorded. Uteri, which had no visible implantation sites, were stained with ammonium sulfite (10 %) for the detection of early resorptions. At sacrifice live fetuses were weighed, sexed, and examined for external anomalies including those of the oral cavity. Half of live fetuses from each litter were examined for either internal soft tissue or for skeletal changes.

There were no maternal deaths in any of the treatment groups. Dams from the 100-ppm groups showed an absolute weight gain of 24±16 g through the period of exposure, which was lower and statistically significantly different from that of the concurrent control group (42 ± 11 g). Also food intake of 24 ± 3 g food/dam/day through the period of exposure of the 100-ppm group was somewhat lower and statistically significantly different in comparison to that of the concurrent control group (27 ± 2 g food/dam/day). No adverse effects were observed on the mean number of implantation sites per litter and on the mean number of live fetuses per litter in any of the 2-EHA exposed groups. The incidences of non-live implants (3.7 - 6.4 %) and of resorption sites per litter (3.7 - 6.1 %) in the treated groups were lower than those of the concurrent control (both 10.1 %). This observation, however, is not considered to be of toxicological significance. Mean fetal body weights were slightly lower in the treated groups, however not statistically significantly different from that of the concurrent control fetuses. Sex ratio was unaffected. No significant differences were observed between the control and the 2-EHA-treated groups in the incidences of gross anomalies or of visceral or skeletal malformations or variations.

In summary, no embryotoxic, teratogenic or fetotoxic properties of 2-EHA had been revealed from this study for concentrations of up to and including 100 ppm. Due to technical limitations exposure to higher concentrations could not be tested. Based on slightly reduced food intake and lower maternal weight gain at the higher exposure level a NOAEC for maternal toxicity of 75 ppm (approximately 0.56 mg/L) was derived from this study. No embryo-/fetotoxic effects were revealed even at the highest tested concentration at which some signs of maternal toxicity had been observed. Therefore, a NOAEC for developmental toxicity of 100 ppm (approximately 0.75 mg/L) was derived from this study.

Based on these results the NOAEL of 2 -Propenoic acid, dodecyl ester is also considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Classification, Labelling, and Packaging Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008

The available screening studies are reliable and suitable for classification purposes under Regulation 1272/2008. As no substance-related adverse findings were noted up to the highest test dose, the substance is not considered to be classified for fertility or developmental toxicity under Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008, as amended for the tenth time in Regulation (EC) No. 2017/776.

During the four days covered in the screening study, no effects via lactation were observed.

Additional information