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Environmental fate & pathways

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Tin sulphide is an inorganic, solid chemical. Hence, abiotic and biotic degradation investigations for the substance are not required according to REACH (EC 1907/2006). Furthermore, tin sulphide is insoluble in water (< 1 µg/L). Hence bioaccumulation is not expected. This is confirmed by a bioconcentration study which shows a log BCF of < 1 (BCF 48 and 558). Furthermore and for the reasons given above, transport of the substance across water and soil/sediment compartments of the environment is not expected. The substance is used as fine texture powder. Hence any particulate material which may enter STPs will be retained by sedimentation and/or flocculation. The particulate matter of the substance in aqueous solutions was confirmed by an experimental study following OECD 106, which showed that the test material was removed completely by 0.22 µm fibrous membranes. Hence, contamination of surface water is excluded. Any particulates of the substance which might reach soil/sediment (directly or indirectly) will be filtered during passage through soil/sediment. Hence contamination of surface and groundwater is excluded.

Based on its physical-chemical properties and the a.m. behaviour of solid particles, the substance does not pose a hazard to the environment: Further exposure and risk assessments for surface water, sediment, soil, and groundwater compartments of the environment are not required, according to Annex IX of REACH.

Furthermore, the substance occurs naturally as the mineral „Herzenbergit“ (seehttps://www.mindat.org/min-1880.html). Hence, a quantitative environmental risk assessment is not possible since it cannot be distinguished between effects (if any) caused by the substance entering the environment by human use and effects (if any) of the naturally occurring substance.

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