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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2012
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 100 mg/l (nominal)
- Sampling method: at the start and at the end of the test (48 h)
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): less than 24 hours old
- Feeding during test: no

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Maintained at 224-243 mg/L as CaCO3.
Test temperature:
20.1 - 21.1 ºC
pH:
7.8 - 8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
7.7 - 8..9 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 0 and 100 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 30
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
M4 medium was used

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light/ 8 h dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Adverse effects and immobility were examined daily.
The criterion of immobilization employed in this study was an inability to swim for approximately 15 seconds after a gentle stir.

- VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: no

RANGE-FINDING STUDY
- Test concentrations: 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: no immobility was observed at 100 mg/L
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 2.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Details on results:
No immobility, adverse effects or abnormal behaviour were observed at control or 100 mg/L (nominal).
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical analysis was not performed because the limit test was conducted at 100 mg/L (nominal) only.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
There was no immobilisation in the control and the dissolved oxigen was more than 3 mg/L)
Conclusions:
The 48h-EC50 of calcium hydrogenorthophosphate in Daphnia magna was higher than 100 mg/L (nominal) and 2.9 mg/L (measured), based on mobility.
Executive summary:

A short-term toxicity test on aquatic invertebrates was performed with calcium hydrogenorthophosphate according to OECD Guideline 202, following GLP. In accordance with a range-finding preliminary study, a limit test was performed with Daphnia magna using one concentration test (100 mg/L) and one control group in a static system. Three groups of thirty daphnids were exposed to the test item or the control for 48h. The analysis of the test substance in the test solution was performed at the beginning (0 h) and the end (48 h) of the test using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). No immobility, adverse effects or abnormal behaviour were observed at control or 100 mg/L (nominal). All validity criteria were met. The 48h-EC50 of calcium hydrogenorthophosphate in Daphnia magna was higher than 100 mg/L (nominal) and 2.9 mg/L (measured), based on mobility.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1984
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Version / remarks:
Guideline 202 on “Daphnia sp., Acute Immobilisation Test and Reproduction Test”, adopted in
April 1984, included two parts: Part I - the 24h EC50 acute immobilisation test and Part II - the reproduction test (at least 14 days).
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material: Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Lot No.: PAR1681.
- Purity: 100.2%
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 100, 180, 320, 560 and 1000 mg/L
- Sampling method: at the start of the test and at the end of the test (48 h).
Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
dechlorinated industrial water
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: test substance was diluted with dilution water. Test substance was stored in freezer. The stability of the chemical was confirmed by IR absorption spectrum. Under the stock condition, IR spectrum of the test substance at the end of test was same at the start.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Source: National Institute of Environmental Studies (Japan).
- Age of parental stock (mean and range, SD): Less than 24 h old.

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
Total hardness (as CaCO3): 27 mg/L
Test temperature:
20 ± 1 ºC
pH:
7.8
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 100, 180, 320, 560 and 1000 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test volume: 100 mL
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5 animals
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 h light / 8 h dark

Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
669 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
IC50
Effect conc.:
349 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
180 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
None of the test organisms were immobilized the behaviour at control.
The lowest concentration from which the test organisms were immobilized was 320 mg/L at 48 h.

Calculation of toxic values: Nominal concentration.

Nominal Conc. [mg/l]

24 h

48 h

Control

0 (0)

0 (0)

100

0 (0)

0 (0)

180

0 (0)

0 (0)

320

1 (5)

8 (40)

560

6 (30)

9 (95)

1000

17 (85)

20 (100)

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 48h-EC50 of choline chloride in Daphnia magna was determined to be 349 mg/L (nominal) and the 48h-NOEC was determined to be 180 mg/L (nominal), both based on mobility.
Executive summary:

An acute immobilisation test on Daphnia magna was performed with choline chloride according to OECD Guideline 202, following GLP. The following test item concentrations 0 (control), 100, 180,320, 560 and 1000 mg/L were tested in a static system. Four groups of five daphnids were exposed to the different concentrations of the test item or the control for 48 h. The analysis of the test substance in the test solution was performed at the start (0 h) and at the end of the test (48 h) by HPLC. The 48h-EC50 of test item in Daphnia magna was determined to be 349 mg/L (nominal) and the 48h-NOEC was determined to be 180 mg/L (nominal), both based on mobility.

Description of key information

The available data refer to the degradation products of calcium phosphorylcholine chloride (choline and inorganic phosphate):

- Key study. Method according to OECD 202. GLP study. The 48h-EC50 of choline chloride in Daphnia magna was determined to be 349 mg/L (nominal) and the 48h-NOEC was determined to be 180 mg/L (nominal), both based on mobility.

- Key study. Method according OECD to 202. GLP study. The 48h-EC50 of calcium hydrogenorthophosphate in Daphnia magna was higher than 100 mg/L (nominal) and 2.9 mg/L (measured), based on mobility.

Based on this information, it can be concluded that the substance phosphoryl choline chloride has a 48h-EC50 in Daphnia magna higher than 100 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
100 mg/L

Additional information

- Key study. An acute immobilisation test on Daphnia magna was performed with choline chloride according to OECD Guideline 202, following GLP. The following test item concentrations 0 (control), 100, 180,320, 560 and 1000 mg/L were tested in a static system. Four groups of five daphnids were exposed to the different concentrations of the test item or the control for 48 h. The analysis of the test substance in the test solution was performed at the start (0 h) and at the end of the test (48 h) by HPLC. The 48h-EC50 of test item in Daphnia magna was determined to be 349 mg/L (nominal) and the 48h-NOEC was determined to be 180 mg/L (nominal), both based on mobility.

- Key study. A short-term toxicity test on aquatic invertebrates was performed with calcium hydrogenorthophosphate according to OECD Guideline 202, following GLP. In accordance with a range-finding preliminary study, a limit test was performed with Daphnia magna using one concentration test (100 mg/L) and one control group in a static system. Three groups of thirty daphnids were exposed to the test item or the control for 48h. The analysis of the test substance in the test solution was performed at the beginning (0 h) and the end (48 h) of the test using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). No immobility, adverse effects or abnormal behaviour were observed at control or 100 mg/L (nominal). All validity criteria were met. The 48h-EC50 of calcium hydrogenorthophosphate in Daphnia magna was higher than 100 mg/L (nominal) and 2.9 mg/L (measured), based on mobility.