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Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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developmental toxicity
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to a guideline study

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of dermally applied Monoethanolamine in rats and rabbits
Liberacki AB, Neeper-Bradley TL, Breslin WJ and Zielke GJ
Bibliographic source:
Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 31: 117-123
Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
equivalent or similar to guideline
OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
equivalent or similar to guideline
EU Method B.31 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were exposed dermally to 10, 25 or 75 mg/kg bw/day of the test substance for approximately 6 hours/day on days 6 through 18 of gestation.
GLP compliance:
Limit test:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Details on test material:
- Name of test material: Monoethanolamine (2-Aminoethanol)
- Analytical purity: 100 % pure as analyzed gas chromotography using flame ionization detection
- supplier: The Dow Chemical Company

Test animals

New Zealand White
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Source: Hazelton Research Products, Inc. (Denver, PA), U.S.A.
- Weight at study initiation: 3.0-4.0 kg
- Fasting period before study: none
- Housing: in wire-bottom cages
- Diet: ad libitum
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 2 weeks

- Temperature: 20 °C
- Humidity: 40-60 %
- Photoperiod: 12 hours dark / 12 hours light

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
Details on exposure:
- Area of exposure: shaved skin of the back
- Type of wrap: sterile gauze held in place by Lycra-Spandex jacket

- Washing: water-dampened towel was used to wipe remaining test material off.
- Time after start of exposure: 6 hours

- Amount applied: 2 mL/kg bw
- Constant volume or concentration used: no
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- M/F ratio per cage: 2/1
- Length of cohabitation: over night
- Verification of same strain and source of both sexes: yes
- Proof of pregnancy: copulation referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
days 6-18 of gestation
Frequency of treatment:
6 hours/day, daily
Duration of test:
up to day 29 of gestation
Doses / concentrations
Doses / Concentrations:
10, 25, 75 mg/kg bw/day
other: received dermal dose
No. of animals per sex per dose:
15 dams/group
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: dose levels selected for these studies were chosen based upon the results of dermal range-finding and teratology probe studies conducted in rabbits.


Maternal examinations:
- Time schedule: daily

- Time schedule: gestation days 0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 29

- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes


- Sacrifice on gestation day 29
- Organs examined: weights of liver and kidneys

Blood analysis prior to Caesarian section; skin irritation was evaluated once daily during the postdosing period
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination.
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: Yes
- Number of late resorptions: Yes
- Other: Uteri with no visible implantations were stained with a 10 % sulfide solution.
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: yes, all per litter
- Soft tissue examinations: yes, all per litter
- Skeletal examinations: yes, half per litter
- Head examinations: yes, half per litter

All fetuses were weighed and examined for evidence of external alterations and palate closure. All of the rabbit fetuses in each litter were examined for visceral alterations (Staples, 1974). The sex of all live fetuses was determined. The heads of one half of the rabbit fetuses not selected for skeletal examination were removed, placed in Bouin's solution, and subsequently sectioned and examined for craniofacial defects (Wilson, 1965 ; Van Julsingha and Bennet, 1977). All fetuses were eviscerated and stained with Alizarin red-S ( Dawson, 1926; Crary, 1962). Skeletal examinations were conducted only on the rat fetuses not selected for Bouin's examination.

- Crary DD (1962). Modified Benzyl alcohol clearing of Alizarin-stained specimens withut loss of flexibility. Stain Technol. 37: 124-125.
- Dawson AB (1926). A note on the staining of the skeletons of cleared specimens with Alizarin-red S. Stain Technol. 1: 123-124.
- Staples RE (1974). Detection of visceral alterations in mammalian fetuses. Teratology 9: 37 [Abstract].
- Van Julsingha EB and Bennet CG (1977). A dissecting procedure for the detection of anomalies in the foetal head. In: Methods in prenatal toxicology (Neubert D, Merker HJ and Kwasigroch TE, editors) PSG, Littleton MA, U.S.A.: 126-144.
- Wilson JG (1965). Method for administering agents and detecting malformations in experimental animals. In: Teratology: principles and techniques (Wilson JG and Warkany J, editors) Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.
Continuous data were evaluated for homogeneity of variance using Levene's test (Levene, 1960). Based upon the outcome of this test, a parametric or nonparametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. If the ANOVA was significant, analysis by Dunnett's test (Steel and Torrie, 1960), the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test with Bonferroni's correction (Miller, 1966), or a pooled t-test was performed as appropriate. The level of statistical significance was set a priori at a = 0.05. Nonparametric data were compared using Fischer's exact probability test (Siegel, 1956).

- Levene H (1960). Robust tests for equality of variance. In: Contributions to probability and statistics (Olkin I et al., editors). Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford CA, U.S.A..
- Miller RG Jr. (1966). Simultaneous statistical inference. McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A..
- Siegel S (1956). Non-parametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A..
- Steel RGD and Torrie JH (1960). Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A..

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Rabbits administered 75 mg/kg bw/day exhibited severe skin irritation (erythema, edema, ecchymosis, necrosis, exfoliation, and crusting) at the site of exposure. Subsequent to the dosing period, exfoliation, crusting, and areas of necrosis persisted. The skin of the majority of these rabbits began to heal as evidenced by scab formation late in the gestation period. Crusting, transient erythema, and edema were noted in a few rabbits administered 25 mg/kg bw/day. No significant dermal irritation or lesions were observed among rabbits administered 10 mg/kg bw/day.

No females died, aborted, delivered early or were removed from the test during the study. There were also no significant treatment-related effects observed on feed consumption, hematologic parameters or kidney and liver weights of exposed rabbits at any dose level tested.

No statistically identified changes were observed in body weight and body weight gain, the average body weight gain of high dose rabbits over the course of gestation was decreased when compared to that of the control and other dose groups, mainly due to weight loss or very little weight gain during the treatment period.

Effect levels (maternal animals)

open allclose all
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
10 mg/kg bw/day
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
75 mg/kg bw/day
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
No treatment-related effects were observed on reproductive parameters including pregnancy rate, number of corpora lutea, number of implantations, resorptions, litter size, number of dead fetuses, fetal sex ratio, fetal body weight or gravid uterine weight among exposed rabbits at any dose level when compared to controls. There were no statistically or biologically significant treatment-related differences in the incidence of any fetal variation or malformation, or in the number of malformed fetuses in any dose group. Among control litters the following types of malformations were noted: ventricular septal defect, common opening at entry of the vessels of the heart, missing lung lobe, missing gallbladder, and extra lumbar centrum and arches.

Malformations observed in litters from rabbits given 10 mg/kg bw/day included dilated lateral cerebral ventricle with tissue depression, missing lung lobe, missing gallbladder, misaligned or fused thoracic centra, extra lumbar centrum and arches, and fused ribs. Limited numbers of malformations noted at 25 mg/kg bw/day included dilated lateral cerebral ventricle with tissue depression and missing lung lobe. Malformations observed in fetuses from the 75 mg/kg bw/day group litters included the following: dilated lateral cerebral ventricle with tissue depression, missing lung lobe, diagonally displaced thoracic centra, missing thoracic arch, and a single missing rib.

Fetal abnormalities

not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion