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The majority of data on the physical and chemical properties of bismuth metal were taken from handbooks (including CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 2007; The Merck Index, 2006), public databases (e.g. Gestis database on hazardous substances 2009) or MSDSs.

New testing in accordance with OECD or EU guidelines was conducted to obtain information about: water solubility, auto flammability, flammability and explosive properties (thermal stability).

In addition, informationfor the particle size distributions of two bismuth metal samples was made available by the Sponsor.Dustiness of bismuth metal powder (-200 mesh) was determined according to DIN 55992-1:2006 (Determination of a parameter for the dust formation of pigments and extenders – Part 1: Rotation method). As a deviation, the Heubach dust meter was modified in a way that a seven stage cascade impactor is connected to the system.

Waivers are proposed for vapour pressure, partition coefficient, surface tension, flash point, oxidizing properties, stability in organic solvents, dissociation constant and viscosity, as well as for pyrophoric properties and flammability in contact with water.

Bismuth metal (Bi, molecular weight 208.98 g/mol), CAS No. 7440-69-9, EC No. 231-177-4

Bismuth metal is an odourless, greyish-white soft metal or metal powder with reddish tinge and/or a bright metallic lustre.


Melting point: 271.4°C (reliable handbook data)

Boiling point: 1560°C (reliable handbook data)

Relative density: 9.8 (reliable handbook data)

Particle size distribution (unpublished data from industry/sponsor; size of -200 mesh):

D10= 19.161 µm

D50= 44.468 µm

D90= 84.387 µm

Vapour pressure (waiver): A calculation utilising the corresponding data for metallic lead (PSE neighbour) is considered justified. As a result, an extremely low vapour pressure of 9.55 * 10 -25 Pa at room temperature was calculated for lead metal. In analogy, a similarly low value for bismuth metal may reasonably be anticipated.

Water solubility: 1.873 mg/L (slightly soluble (0.1 – 100 mg/L)) (GLP and guideline study; according to OECD guideline 105)

Self ignition temperature: 303°C (guideline study, according to EC A.16. – Auto flammability (solids - determination of relative self-ignition temperature))

Flammability: The test substance is no flammable solid (guideline study; according to EC A.10. – Flammable solids)

Thermal stability: Bismuth is thermal stable up to min. 265°C (DSC analysis; OECD guideline 113)

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