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additional ecotoxicological information
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Study not conducted according to an official guideline but well designed and sufficiently described. Main deficiencies are the lack of analytical verification of the exposure concentrations and the use of carrier solvent for preparing the test solutions

Data source

Reference Type:
Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to bisphenol-S impairs subsequent reproduction potential and hormonal balance in adults
M. Naderi et al.
Bibliographic source:
Aquatic Toxicology 148: 195-203 (2014)

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Zebrafish embryos were exposed to and reared in various concentrations of bisphenol-S for 75 days. Then adult males and females were paired in spawning tanks for 7 days in clean water and the consequent effects on fish development, reproduction, plasma vitellogenin (VTG), sex steroids and thyroid hormonelevels were investigated as endpoints.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Details on test material:
Technical grade (purity > 98%)

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Sex ratio and mortality

Exposure of zebrafish embryos to different doses of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol resulted in a skew in the sex ratio towards females in adults.

Fish reared in the treatment with the highest dosage of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol showed significantly higher mortality rates relative to those from the solvent control group.


Body length and weight significantly decreased in males exposed to 100 µg/l of test substance.

Gonadosomatic index was significantly reduced in fish at ≥10 µg/l. Hepatosomatic index exhibited a significant increase in both male and female fish.

Plasma hormones and vitellogenin

At concentration of ≥1 µg/l 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol, plasma 17-estradiol levels were significantly increased in both males and females. However, plasma testosterone showed asignificant reduction in males exposed to 10 and 100 µg/l of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol. A significant induction in plasma VTG level was observed in both males and females at ≥10 µg/l of test substance. Plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were significantly decreased at 10 and 100 µg/l of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol in males, and at 100 µg/l in females.


Egg production and sperm count were also significantly decreased in groups exposed to 10 and 100 µg/l of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol. Decreased rates of hatching were also observed.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

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