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Ecotoxicological information

Additional ecotoxological information

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Administrative data

additional ecotoxicological information
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
The study performed by Naderi et al (2014) was not conducted according to GLP and did not closely follow an OECD testing guideline. Furthermore, several shortcomings were identified during the assessment of the study: No analytical confirmation of the testing concentrations has been performed. A solvent was used at a concentration (100 mg/L) exceeding the recommended limit for chronic tests (20 mg/L). No specification of the aquaria type used. Confounding factors from plastic or silicone parts of the equipment cannot be ruled out. Assignment of testing groups deviating from guideline recommendations: FSDT phase: 3 replicates vs. 4 (OECD 234) Repro phase: 3 replicates (2 males/females per vessel) vs. 2 replicates (5 males/females per vessel; OECD 229) Gonad histopathology not performed. Sex ratio: intersex or undifferentiated gondas were not identified, results are within natural variation (30-70%) in zebrafish Accordingly, the results obtained from the study are of high uncertainty and it is questionable whether the effects observed may be directly and exclusively attributed to the test substance.

Data source

Reference Type:
Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to bisphenol-S impairs subsequent reproduction potential and hormonal balance in adults
M. Naderi et al.
Bibliographic source:
Aquatic Toxicology 148: 195-203 (2014)

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Zebrafish embryos were exposed to and reared in various concentrations of bisphenol-S for 75 days. Then adult males and females were paired in spawning tanks for 7 days in clean water and the consequent effects on fish development, reproduction, plasma vitellogenin (VTG), sex steroids and thyroid hormonelevels were investigated as endpoints.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Details on test material:
Technical grade (purity > 98%)

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Sex ratio and mortality

Exposure of zebrafish embryos to different doses of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol resulted in a skew in the sex ratio towards females in adults.

Fish reared in the treatment with the highest dosage of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol showed significantly higher mortality rates relative to those from the solvent control group.


Body length and weight significantly decreased in males exposed to 100 µg/l of test substance.

Gonadosomatic index was significantly reduced in fish at ≥10 µg/l. Hepatosomatic index exhibited a significant increase in both male and female fish.

Plasma hormones and vitellogenin

At concentration of ≥1 µg/l 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol, plasma 17-estradiol levels were significantly increased in both males and females. However, plasma testosterone showed asignificant reduction in males exposed to 10 and 100 µg/l of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol. A significant induction in plasma VTG level was observed in both males and females at ≥10 µg/l of test substance. Plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were significantly decreased at 10 and 100 µg/l of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol in males, and at 100 µg/l in females.


Egg production and sperm count were also significantly decreased in groups exposed to 10 and 100 µg/l of 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol. Decreased rates of hatching were also observed.

Applicant's summary and conclusion