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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

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Description of key information

Short-term toxicity to fish

LC50 (96 h) = 7100 mg/L (95 % CL: 6700-7500 mg/L) for Lepomis macrochirus (US EPA Guideline 660/3-75-009, flow-through, GLP compliance not specified)

Long-term toxicity to fish

NOEC (21 day, growth) > 102 mg/L for Japanese killifish (Oryzias latipes), OECD Guideline 204 (Fish, Prolonged Toxicity Test: 14-day Study), flow-through, GLP

 

Short-term toxicity to invertebrates

EC50 (48 h) = 13100 mg/L for Daphnia magna (OECD Guideline 202, static, non-GLP)

 

Long-term toxicity to invertebrates

NOEC (21 d) = 1500 mg/L for Daphnia magna (no guideline followed, semi-static, non-GLP)

 

Toxicity to algae

EC50 (72 h) > 1000 mg/L for Desmodesmus subspicatus (DIN 38412, part 9, static, non-GLP)

EC10 (72 h) > 1000 mg/L for Desmodesmus subspicatus (DIN 38412, part 9, static, non-GLP)

Toxicity to microorganisms

EC50 (5 min): 12300 - 17500 mg/L for Vibrio fisheri (E12-06, static, non-GLP)

Additional information

Acute toxicity data are available for three trophic levels (fish, daphnids, and algae). Additionally, long-term data are available for fish as well as for daphnids. To consider the toxicity of the test substance in a sewage treatment plant, toxicity data regarding microorganisms are also reported.

Lepomis macrochirus was used in an acute toxicity experiment conducted according to US-EPA 660/3-75-009 method (Poirier et.al., 1986). After an exposure of 96 hours, a LC50 of 7100 mg/L was determined. In another screening test a LC50 greater than 10000 mg/L was detected (BASF AG, 1976). In this case, Leuciscus idus was chosen as test organism and the time duration was 48 hours.

Regarding long-term toxicity to fish one valid GLP-study is available, which was conducted according to OECD Guideline 204 - Fish, Prolonged Toxicity Test: 14-day Study (Version 1984). In this study the long-term toxicity of N,N-dimethylformamide in Japanese killifish (Oryzias latipes) has been investigated. Based on the results the determined NOEC (21 day, growth) was more than 102 mg/L.

All toxicity experiments on aquatic invertebrates, acute as well as chronic, were performed with Daphnia magna. After an exposure time of 48 hours a EC50 greater than 100 mg/L is reported (BASF AG, 1992). Jarosz, T. (2008) performed a toxicity test according to OECD Guideline 202, whereby a EC50 (48h) of 13100 mg/L was determined. After 24 hours an EC50 of 26300 mg/L and after 48 hours an EC50 of 14500 mg/L were the results concerning a study conducted according to US-EPA guideline 660/3-75-009 (Poirier, S.H. et.al., 1986).

A semi-static reproduction test is a valid long-term toxicity study for aquatic invertebrates. The test organisms were exposed for 21 days to N,N-dimethylformamide resulting in a LOEC of 3000 mg/L, NOEC of 1500 mg/L, and EC50 of 3721 mg/L (Adams & Heidolph, 1985). Additionally, a GM-MATC of 2121 mg/L is reported in this study. This value is the geometric mean of the highest concentration producing no significant effect and the lowest concentration producing a statistically significant effect. A second chronic toxicity study is available which was performed according to OECD Guideline 211 (Jarosz, T., 2008). The exposure time was 21 days, whereby a NOEC of 300 mg/L and a LC50 of 767 mg/L were reported, based on mortality. Regarding reproduction, the NOEC is 100 mg/L.

Concerning toxicity to algae of N,N-dimethylformamide, one study was conducted according to German guideline DIN 38412, part 9 with Desmodesmus subspicatus (BASF AG, 1988). After 72 hours exposure the following results were obtained: EC50 > 1000 mg/L and EC10 > 1000 mg/L. Results were based on growth rate.

In another study, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was investigated for 14 days exposure to the test substance (Hughes and Vilkas, 1983). This experiment was conducted according to US-EPA guideline 600/9-78-018 and resulted in a NOEC of 940 mg/L, based on biomass. N,N-dimethylformamide stimulated growth at low concentrations in an experiment using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris (El Jay, A., 1996). At concentrations of 0.2 % / 0.5 % / 1 % a growth inhibition of 7 % / 38 % / 76 % was observed for P. subcapitata, C. vulgaris growth was inhibited by 7 % / 32 % at DMF concentration levels of 0.5 and 1 %, respectively.

With regard to aquatic toxicity, another available study refers to microorganisms. Vibrio fisheri was used in an experiment concerning the guideline E12-06. In this growth inhibition study an EC50 of 12300 - 17500 mg/L was observed after 5 minutes exposure duration.