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Administrative data

Description of key information

NOAEL (male) 100 mg/kg bw/day, NOEL (female) <100 mg/kg bw/day for systemic toxicity Pigment Red 57:1(Ca) (OECD 422, GLP, MHLW 1993). No edverse effects on reproductive toxicity was observed. Based on results obtained from other category members, a NOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw/day was established.

No histopathology findings on kidneys were reported after a two-year skin painting study with mice with Pigment Red 57:1(Ca) (Carson 1984).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
September 21,1993 - November 24,1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Version / remarks:
March 22, 1990
Deviations:
no
Remarks:
Urinalysis not performed
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
-Analytical purity : 98 % w/w
- D&C Red 7
- R-92-214
Species:
rat
Strain:
Crj: CD(SD)
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
- Sources:Charles River Laboratories Japan (Atsugi Breeding Center)
- Age at study initiation : 7 weeks
- Weight at study initiation : females 196.5-227.4 g, males: 235.5-299.6 g
- Housing : Individually housed in stainlelss suspended cages
- Diet : CA-1 (CLEA Japan, Inc.) ad libitum
- Water : Tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period : 1 week for quarantine and acclimaition
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: 5% gum arabic solution
Details on oral exposure:
- Amount of vehicleL 10 mL/kg
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration of test substance in the dosing formulation was analytically confirmed to attain the required level.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males : Total of 42 days ( 14 days before mating, 14 days for mating, and 14 days after mating)
Females : Total of 41-50 days (14 days before mating, during mating, pregnancy and up to lactation day 3)
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
13/sex/dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: doses were selected on the basis of a 14-day preliminary repeat dose study at 1000 mg/kg bw/day. No deaths and clinical signs observed. 3 cases of necrosis or regeneration of tubular epithelium were seen in males.

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes (see table 1&2)
- Time schedule: Males and Females - on each administration day.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Males - measured once a week on administration days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42; Females - measured once a week on administration days 0, 7, 14, and 21, during pregnancy on days 0, 7, 14, and 20, during lactation on day 0 and 4.


FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE :
- Food consumption for each animal determined: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations : Males - measured once a week on administration days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42; Females - measured once a week on administration days 0, 7, 14, and 21, during pregnancy on days 0, 7, 14, and 20, during lactation on day 0 and 4.


OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No
- Time schedule for examinations:
- Dose groups that were examined:


HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Males - day after final administration day
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (pentobarbital)
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: 13 animals per male per group
- Parameters checked in table 1 were examined.

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: Males - day after final administration day
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (pentobarbital)
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals : 13 animals per male per group
- Parameters checked in table 2 were examined.

URINALYSIS: No

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes (see table 3 under 'Any other information on results incl. tables')
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (see table 4 under 'Any other information on results incl. tables')
Statistics:
x squared test was conducted for copulation and fertility indices. For all the other parameters, Bartlett's test was used to examine uniformity of distribution in each group, and one-way statistical analysis was performed when the distribution is uniform. Where significant differences were observed, Dunnett's test or Scheff's test was performed to examine differences in averages between each test group and control groups. Kruskal-Wallis's test was conducted when the distribution was not uniform. Significant testing was carried out at the 5% and the 1% levels.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
- Males: red stained feces at all doses. One animal with crust formation during whole treatment period at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
- Females: red stained feces at all doses. One animal with crust formation from day 22 to sacrifice at 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males - 1 day after termination of administration period: Significantly lower values of MCH (p<0.05) were seen in the 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups compared to the controls. Dose-dependent decrease in WBC was seen in the the 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups, but the effects were not significant. In the absence of historical control data, no corresponding histopathology findings and other affected parameters, the findings are considered of no biological relevance.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males - 1 day after termination of administration period: Significantly lower levels of inorganic phosphorus and Calcium were seen in the 300 mg/kg bw/day group. Significant low levels of Total cholesterol and pottasium and significant high values of Chloride and GOT were noted in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males - 1 day after termination of administration period: Significant high values of relative weight of kidney were observed in the 1000 mg/kg bw/daygroup.

Females - Day 4 of lactation: Significant low values of absolute and relative weight of thymus were noted in the 100 mg/kg kw/day group (p< 0.01 for absolute weight, p<0.05 for relative weight). Significant low values of absolute weight of thymus were noted in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group (p <0.05).

Females sacrificed at pregnancy Day 25: Non-significant low values of absolute and relative weight of thymus were noted in one animal with total litter loss in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. In the absence of significant effects on WBC and lymphocytes, thymus findings are probably of little biological relevance. Historical control incidence is not available for comparison.
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males: No dose-related effects were observed.

Females - Sacrificed at Day 4 of lactation: 2 cases of involution of thymus were seen in the 100 mg/kg bw/day group and 5 cases in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. A case of pale coloured area in kidney was seen in the 100 mg/kg bw/day and the 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups respectively. A case of pale coloured renal cortex was observed in another animal of the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males - 1 day after termination of administration period:
Thymus: Two cases of hemorrhage were seen in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group, one case in the control group. In the absence of a dose-response relationship, this is considered incidental.
Heart: Small areas of myocardial degeneration were seen in 2 cases in the control group. No other abnormalities were observed.
Liver: No treatment-related findings were observed. Ten cases of very slight microgranuloma were seen respectively in the control and the 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups. Slight fatty changes in peripheral zone were seen in a case of the control group and in four cases of the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. Therefore, there was no significant difference in severity and incidence of the findings between the control and the 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups. A case of very slight focal necrosis was seen in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group.
Kidney: Large numbers of regenerating tubular epithelium were observed in three cases in the 300 mg/kg bw/day group and twelve cases in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group compared to the control groups. The severity was augmented in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. The regenerating epithelial cells were found predominantly in convoluted proximal tubules, showing increased cell density, slightly enlarged nucleoli, and slightly bright or basophilic cytoplasm. In most cases, slightly-yellowish debris was noted in the tubular lumen. A single case of cast in tubular lumen was found in the 100 mg/kg bw/day group. In all groups, including the control group, eosinophilic bodies were observed with no significant differences in incidence and severity among the groups.
Adrenal cortex : Brown pigment deposits were observed both in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day and the control groups but there is no significant difference in incidence and severity.
Spleen: Brown pigment deposits and extramedullary hematopoiesis were found both in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day and the control groups, with no significant difference in incidence and severity.
Testis: Atrophy of tubule was found in 2 cases in the control group and 3 cases in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. One of the cases in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group had calcification in the tubule.
Epididymis: Decreased numbers of sperm were noted in each one case in the control and the 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups. Both animals had atrophy of the tubule.

Females
Thymus: A case of very slight and a case of slight involution were found in the control group. In the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group, increased numbers of involution were found with a case rated "very slight", 3 cases rated "slight", and 2 cases rated "moderately slight".
Liver: Very slight microgranuloma was seen in a case of the control and 2 cases of the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group sacrificed at Day 4 of lactation, and one non-pregnant animal in the control group sacrificed at Day 25 of pregnancy. Very slight to slight fatty changes in peripheral zone were seen in 3 cases in the control group, and very slight to moderate fatty changes in 2 cases in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. There were no significant differences in severity and incidence between the control and the 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups.
Kidney: In all treatment groups sacrificed at Day 4 of lactation, increased numbers of incidences of regenerating tubular epithelium were observed. The findings are accompanied with foamy epithelial cells and vacuolar degeneration predominantly in convoluted proximal tubule. In many cases, necrotized epithelial cells were noted, and eosinophilic necrotized cells and yellowish debris were contained in the tubular lumen. In tubular basement of these animals, regenerating epithelial cells included large-sized basophilic cytoplasma. The incidence was similar in all dose groups; the severity of this lesion was slightly increased in the high-dose group.
In all dose groups, there were some animals completely free of kidney findings. Among those were a non-delivering animal (total implantation loss) in the 100 mg/kg bw/day group, 2 non-pregmant animals in the 300 mg/kg bw/day group, and a non-copulated animal in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group.

Other kidney findings that are considered incidental included each one case of cast in the tubular lumen in the control and the 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups, each one case of slight vacuolar degeneration in the control and the 100 mg/kg bw/day groups, and each one case of focal dilatation of tubule in the 100 mg/kg bw/day and the 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups. The case of cast of the animal in the control group was considered be associated with the very slight incidence of chronic nephropathy.


Adrenal cortex: A case of very slight brown pigment deposit and a case of focal necrosis were observed in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group.
Spleen: Brown pigment deposits and extramedullary hematopoiesis were observed in 11 animals in the control group and 12 animals in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group. Two cases were also found in non-pregnant animals in the control group, sacrificed at Day 25 of pregnancy. There were no clear differences in incidence and severity between the treated and the control groups.
Ovary: No abnomarities were found with non-pregnant animals (two in the control and two in the 300 mg/kg bw/day groups) and in the non-copulated animal ( one in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day group).
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
< 100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
System:
urinary
Organ:
kidney
Treatment related:
yes
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
25 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
System:
urinary
Organ:
kidney

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
chronic toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Performed prior to introduction of GLP. Limited details reported. Designed mainly to detect skin cancer. Full histopathology only performed for 5 of 50 animals per dose group.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
18 months application twice weekly of 50 mg/kg bw onto shaved skin of mice with histopathology of skin and major organs
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): D&C Red 7
- Substance type: pigment
- Physical state: solid
- Analytical purity: 98%
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): no data
- Purity test date: no data
- Lot/batch No.: W4602
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: no data
Species:
mouse
Strain:
ICR
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: no data
- Age at study initiation: no data
- Weight at study initiation: no data
- Fasting period before study: not applicable
- Housing: single
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum):ad libitum
- Acclimation period: no data


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
no data
Type of coverage:
not specified
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
Application of 0.1 ml of a 1% suspension in water
application site: 6 cm2

Initially. the hair on the dorsal area of each animal was clipped with an animal clipper free of lubricatirig oil. Subsequent periodic clipping was performed according to the rate of hair growth.

The test item suspension was prepared fresh weekly
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
471 days (ca 18 months)
Frequency of treatment:
twice per week
Dose / conc.:
0.166 mg/cm² per day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
50 for test item
150 for control
50 for positive control
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Based on human exposure from use in lipstick

Positive control:
3,4-benzpyrene, dissolved in acetone
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations not included

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily
DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): No data
BODY WEIGHT: No data
OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No data
HAEMATOLOGY: No data
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: No data
URINALYSIS: No data
NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (preparation of: brain, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, stomach, small and large intestines, urinary bladder, axillary lymph nodes, testes, ovary, skin from area of treatment, any tissue massess, grossly abnormal organs; complete pathology only for each five males and females; skin and grossly abnormal organs for all animals)
Statistics:
no data
Details on results:
No test-item related effects were observed.
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
>= 50 other: mg/kg bw twice weekly
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
50 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
chronic
Species:
mouse

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
chronic toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Performed prior to introduction of GLP. Limited details reported. Designed mainly to detect skin cancer. Full histopathology only performed for 5 of 50 animals per dose group.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
18 months application twice weekly of 50 mg/kg bw onto shaved skin of mice with histopathology of skin and major organs
GLP compliance:
no
Limit test:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): D&C Red 7
- Substance type: pigment
- Physical state: solid
- Analytical purity: 98%
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): no data
- Purity test date: no data
- Lot/batch No.: W4602
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: no data
Species:
mouse
Strain:
ICR
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: no data
- Age at study initiation: no data
- Weight at study initiation: no data
- Fasting period before study: not applicable
- Housing: single
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum):ad libitum
- Acclimation period: no data


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
no data
Type of coverage:
not specified
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
Application of 0.1 ml of a 1% suspension in water
application site: 6 cm2

Initially. the hair on the dorsal area of each animal was clipped with an animal clipper free of lubricatirig oil. Subsequent periodic clipping was performed according to the rate of hair growth.

The test item suspension was prepared fresh weekly
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
471 days (ca 18 months)
Frequency of treatment:
twice per week
Dose / conc.:
0.166 mg/cm² per day (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
50 for test item
150 for control
50 for positive control
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Based on human exposure from use in lipstick

Positive control:
3,4-benzpyrene, dissolved in acetone
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily
- Cage side observations not included

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily
DERMAL IRRITATION (if dermal study): No data
BODY WEIGHT: No data
OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: No data
HAEMATOLOGY: No data
CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: No data
URINALYSIS: No data
NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No

Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (preparation of: brain, pituitary, thyroid, thymus, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, stomach, small and large intestines, urinary bladder, axillary lymph nodes, testes, ovary, skin from area of treatment, any tissue massess, grossly abnormal organs; complete pathology only for each five males and females; skin and grossly abnormal organs for all animals)
Statistics:
no data
Details on results:
No test-item related effects were observed.
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
>= 50 other: mg/kg bw twice weekly
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Critical effects observed:
not specified
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed

Additional information

Oral exposure

Pigment Red 57:1(Ca) 5281-04-9

The study with Pigment Red 57:1(Ca) for repeated dose oral gavage toxicity was performed in Crj: CD(SD) rats with a product of 98% purity following OECD testing guideline 422 (MHLW, 1993) and the principles of GLP. Applied doses were 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day using 5% Gum Arabic solution as vehicle. All animals survived to the end of the study. No clinical findings indicative of chemical toxicity were observed; red-stained faeces of dosed animals were due to the colour of the pigment. The mean body weight gain and food consumption in both sexes of dosed groups were comparable to those in the control groups throughout the study. No biologically significant changes in hematological parameters were noted in any dosed male groups. Males that received 300 mg/kg or more showed significantly decreased serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Further, significant decreases in serum potassium and total cholesterol levels, and significant increases in chloride and GOT levels were shown in the males that received 1000 mg/kg. Males that received 1000 mg/kg showed significant increases in relative kidney weights. Females that received 100 or 1000 mg/kg showed decreases in thymus weights in comparison with the controls. No other significant differences in organ weights were observed in either the males or the females. On the histopathology examination, predominant alterations suggesting effects in dosed rats were observed in the kidney. The lesions included an increased incidence of renal tubular epithelium regeneration in males receiving 300 mg/kg or more, and this and necrotic or foamy tubular epithelial cells in females that received 100 mg/kg or more. These lesions increased in severity and incidence in a dose-dependent manner.NOELsfor repeat dose toxicity are considered to be100 mg/kg bw/day for males and less than 100 mg/kg bw/day for females.

In another study rats were exposed 5 days a week to 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 30 days (22 doses in total). Half of the animals were not exposed during a recovery period, the other animals were sacrificed after the last exposure. No clinical signs except coloration of the feces was observed. No mortality, changes in food and water consumption, and effects on hematology, clinical biochemistry and urinalysis findings was observed. Slight inhibition of bodyweight gain which recovered during the recovery period was observed. Kidney weights were increased, although recovered after the recovery period. Morphological changes to the tubules of the kidney were observed, although no longer visible after the recovery period. The NOAEL was determined to be less than 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Pigment Red 57(Sr) 73612-29-0

Reversible kidney toxicity with a NOEL of 25 mg/kg bw and a LOAEL of 75 mg/kg bw was observed in the subacute oral toxicity study (OECD 407) with Pigment Red 57(Sr) using olive oil as vehicle (DIC 2006). Absolute and relative kidney weights were increased after four weeks, but not at the end of the treatment-free recovery period. No macroscopic findings were observed, but histopathology examinations showed that kidneys had a dose-dependent increase in atypical and typical basophilic tubules, degeneration and necrosis of tubular epithelium and dilation of distal and collecting tubules with a NOEL of 25 mg/kg bw. All males of the highest dose group of 200 mg/kg bw had orange coloured pigments in the cell debris. The pigment were still visible in two of five animals at the recovery sacrifice, all other histopathology findings were absent. Kidney findings occurred in females at a lower extent - slight degeneration and necrosis of tubular epithelium was observed only for the high dose group (200 mg/kg bw). Histopathology findings were not observed in animals of the recovery group. Body weight and food intake were not affected during the treatment period. During the recovery period, males of treatment group showed an increased food intake compared to control rats. Clinical signs consisted of salivation at the highest dose group during treatment.

Pigment Red 48:2(Ca) 7023-61-2

In the subacute oral toxicity study with Pigment Red 48:2(Ca) (OECD 422, MHLW 2009) using 1% Tween 80 in water as vehicle, the NOEL was determined to be 40 and less than 40 mg/kg bw for males and females, respectively. The test dosages were 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg bw/day. In the histological examination of animals sacrificed after the dosing period, degeneration/necrosis of the proximal tubular epithelium in the kidney was noted in males of the 1000 mg/kg group and females of the 40 mg/kg group and higher. Moreover, degeneration/necrosis of the papillary ductal epithelium in females of the 1000 mg/kg group and mild basophilic tubule in males of the 1000 mg/kg group and females of the 200 and 1000 mg/kg groups were noted. Increased kidney weight was noted in males of the 1000 mg/kg group. These changes disappeared after a 2-week recovery period. Test substance-colored stool (red) was observed in all animals of the 40 mg/kg group and higher. Abnormal contents (test substance-colored reddish contents) the digestive organs such as cecum and colon and reddish urine in males were also noted. However, there were no abnormal changes in the digestive system or other organs/tissues in the histological examination. In other parameters, there were no changes attributed to the test substance on behavior test, body weight, food consumption, hematology, or blood chemistry.

4-aminotoluene-3-sulphonic acid (CAS 88-44-8) Moiety for Pigment Red 57

In an OECD 407 Guideline study, 5 male and female rats per dose group were exposed via oral gavage to 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw test substance for 28 days (ECHA disseminated dossier). Toxicological effects included decreases in white blood cell count, total cholesterol and urine pH, and enlargement of cecum in male at 1000 mg/kg bw/day; increases in GPT, decreases in glucose and enlargement of cecum in female at 1000 mg/kg bw/day. Since all findings were reversible within 14 days, the NOAEL can be set at 300 mg/kg bw/day for both sexes.

Conclusion

Results for all analogue pigments are largely comparable. Kidney effects are clearly the most sensitive endpoint for the BONA metal laked pigments. Bolus dosing results in high peak exposures and high local concentrations and may overload the local detoxification capacities. The colourant is quickly taken up and eliminated via the kidney as indicated by dose-dependent urine coloration occurring within the first day of dosing. The regeneration of the renal epithelium indicates a cytotoxic effect, probably by the azo moiety or a metabolite.

In reproductive toxicity screening studies with Pigment Red 48:2(Ca) and 57:1(Ca) , pregnant females seemed somewhat more susceptible than males or non-pregnant females. However, the reported LOAELs of 40 and 100 mg/kg/day (lowest tested doses in each study, respectively) and the limited severity of the kidney effects at the LOAELs are considered compatible with the derived NOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw/day and no further adjustment is considered necessary. The cytotoxic effect of the Pigments Red lead to a constant regeneration of tubular epithelial cells as long as exposure continues. No pronounced increase in toxicity with dose was observed in any of the studies, i.e. higher doses did not induce qualitatively different kidney effects. Also, prolonged exposure up to 2 years did not increase kidney toxicity or induced qualitatively different effects. It appears that continuous application is better tolerated than bolus application. All kidney effects were completely reversible within tested recovery periods of 14 days. Effects at 40, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg bolus dosing did not induce severe or serious damage, i.e., clear functional disturbance or morphological changes.

Taking all repeated-dose studies into account both the most relevant NOAELs are the one from a guideline 28-day study with Pigment Red 57(Sr) (25 mg/kg bw) and from the chronic feeding study with sodium salt of Pigment Red 57(Na) (26 mg/kg/bw). Twenty-five mg/kg bw is used as starting point for DNEL derivation because the value stems from the newest study with the most extensive analysis of parameters (including urinalysis) and is the lowest value.

Dermal exposure

Absence of histopathology findings in kidney upon 18 month skin painting study with mice was published (1984). The study was designed between the US FDA and an industry association to assess the safety of the use of Pigment Red 57:1(Ca) in lipstick and therefore, a limit dose of 50 mg/kg bw was chosen. Limited details are given in the literature. The main focus of the study was local effects, but a set of organs for each five males and females was investigated by histopathology. As kidney histopathology was the most sensitive endpoint, this investigation contributes to hazard assessment.

Justification for classification or non-classification

The available experimental test data are reliable and suitable for classification purposes under Regulation 1272/2008. As a result the substance is not considered to be classified for repeated dose toxicity according to Classification, Labelling, and Packaging Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008.

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