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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Description of key information

No experimental data available. All available relevant information indicates that hazard to terrestrial organisms is unlikely.

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Additional information

No studies are available on the toxicity of Reaction mass of 1-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and 6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and fructose and glucose and sucrose to terrestrial organisms. However, based on the molecular structure of the constituents, and their natural occurrence and role in common metabolic pathways, toxic effects on terrestrial organisms are not to be expected.

Reaction mass of 1-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and 6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and fructose and glucose and sucrose is the aqueous solution (syrup) of the reaction mass of isomaltulose (CAS 13718-94-0), trehalulose (CAS 51411-23-5), fructose (CAS 57-48-7), glucose (CAS 50-99-7), sucrose (CAS 57-50-1), isomaltose (CAS 499-40-1) and oligosaccharides.

Fructose and glucose are common monosaccharides that feed into glycolysis. Glycolysis is a well described metabolic pathway used by virtually all cells, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, to produce energy in form of ATP. Sucrose is a disaccharide formed by the glycosidic linkage of glucose and fructose. It can be cleaved into its component monosaccharides by the enzyme sucrase (Berg, Tymoczko and Stryer, 2002). Glucose, fructose and sucrose are included in Annex IV of Regulation 1907/2006/EC, as sufficient information is known about these substances, and they are considered to cause minimum risk because of their intrinsic properties. Isomaltulose is a disaccharide composed of α-1,6-linked glucose and fructose, naturally occurring in honey and sugar cane juice. As sucrose, isomaltose is cleaved to fructose and glucose by disaccharidases, and the monosacharides are metabolised following the same classical routes (Lina, Jonker and Kozianowski, 2002; and references therein). Trehalulose is the 1,1-linked glucosylfructose isomer of sucrose (1,2-linked glucosylfructose). It is expected to be hydrolysed to glucose and fructose by disaccharidases, which are ubiquitous among organisms in nature.

In the aquatic studies available for fish, invertebrates and microorganisms, no effects on the test organisms were observed, as expected based on the molecular structure of the constituents. The same lack of toxic potential was revealed by the aquatic toxicity QSAR calculations for all constituents. Due to the similar pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, the same low intrinsic toxicity can also be expected for terrestrial organisms.

Moreover, based on ready biodegradability studies available for isomaltulose, trehalulose and palatinose syrup (consists mainly of glucose, fructose and sucrose), Reaction mass of 1-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and 6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and fructose and glucose and sucrose is expected to be rapidly degraded in the environment. As the constituents also have low adsorption potential (log Koc 1), rapid degradation is also expected in soil.

In conclusion, Reaction mass of 1-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and 6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and fructose and glucose and sucrose is not expected to have toxic effects on terrestrial organisms due to the metabolisation of its constituents via common pathways. Additionally, long-term exposure is unlikely, since Reaction mass of 1-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and 6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose and fructose and glucose and sucrose is expected to be rapidly removed from the terrestrial environment through ready biodegradation.