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Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.9 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
75
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
220.4 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAECcorr = NOAELoral*(1/0.38 m³/kg bw/day)*(ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-human)*(6.7 m³ (8h)/10 m³ (8h)) = 250 mg/kg bw/day*(1/0.38 m³/kg bw/day)*0.67*(0.5/1) = 220.4 mg/m³. It is assumed that oral absorption rate is 50% of that of inhalation absorption. ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSinh-human=inhalation absorption rate in humans.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
AF not used for the inhalation route
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF according to ECHA REACH guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default AF for workers according to ECHA REACH guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The data base is adequate and of good quality (taking into account reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints).
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
hazard unknown (no further information necessary)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
hazard unknown (no further information necessary)
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
4.2 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
300
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
1 250 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAELcorr = NOAELoral*(ABSoral-rat/ABSdermal-human) = (250 mg/kg bw/day)*(0.5/0.1) = 1250 mg/kg bw/day. It is assumed that the dermal absorption rate is 20% of that of the oral absorption. ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSdermal-human=dermal absorption rate in humans.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
The experimental animal was a rat
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF according to ECHA REACH guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default AF for workers according to ECHA REACH guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The data base is adequate and of good quality (taking into account reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints).
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
hazard unknown (no further information necessary)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - workers

Starting point: NOAEL 250 mg/kg bw/day from a subacute oral study in rats.

Route-to-route extrapolation

For the derivation of the DNELs:

Long-term – dermal, systemic effects

Long-term – inhalation, systemic effects

Route-to-route extrapolation has been performed. In absence of relevant data, only differences between the different routes as determined by the assumed percentages of absorption into the systemic circulation could be accounted for (see toxicokinetic assessment).

Absorption oral (rat) = Absorption oral (human) = 50%

Absorption dermal (human) = 10%

Absorption inhalation (human) = 100%

The DNELs for human exposure are derived according to ECHA REACh guidance R.8 (Nov. 2012).

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.72 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
150
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
108.7 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAECcorr = NOAELoral*(1/1.15 m³/kg bw/day)*(ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-human) = 250 mg/kg bw/day*(1/1.15 m³/kg bw/day)*(0.5/1) = 108.7 mg/m³. It is assumed that oral absorption rate is 50% of that of inhalation absorption. ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSinh-human=inhalation absorption rate in humans.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
AF not used for the inhalation route
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF according to ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default AF for general population according to ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The data base is adequate and of good quality (taking into account reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints).
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
hazard unknown (no further information necessary)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
hazard unknown (no further information necessary)
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
2.1 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
1 250 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAELcorr = NOAELoral*(ABSoral-rat/ABSdermal-human) = (250 mg/kg bw/day)*(0.5/0.1) = 1250 mg/kg bw/day. It is assumed that the dermal absorption rate is 20% of that of the oral absorption. ABSoral-rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSdermal-human=dermal absorption rate in humans.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
The experimental animal was a rat
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF according to ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default AF for general population according to ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The data base is adequate and of good quality (taking into account reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints).
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
hazard unknown (no further information necessary)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.42 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
250 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

No route-to-route extrapolation required.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a subacute study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
The experimental animal was a rat
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default AF according to ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default AF for general population according to ECHA REACH Guidance
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The data base is adequate and of good quality (taking into account reliability and consistency across different studies and endpoints).
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - General Population

Starting point: NOAEL 250 mg/kg bw/day from a subacute oral study in rats.

Route-to-route extrapolation

For the derivation of the DNELs:

Long-term – dermal, systemic effects

Long-term – inhalation, systemic effects

Route-to-route extrapolation has been performed. In absence of relevant data, only differences between the different routes as determined by the assumed percentages of absorption into the systemic circulation could be accounted for (see toxicokinetic assessment).

Absorption oral (rat) = Absorption oral (human) = 50%

Absorption dermal (human) = 10%

Absorption inhalation (human) = 100%

 

The DNELs for human exposure are derived according to the ECHA REACh guidance R.8 (Nov. 2012).

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