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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to microorganisms

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Description of key information

Key values for assessment come from ISO 8192 study with activated sludge. 

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for microorganisms:
1 060 mg/L
EC10 or NOEC for microorganisms:
394 mg/L

Additional information

In addition to the selected key study according to ISO 8192 several studies with Benzotriazole, Tolyltriazole as well as different commercially available aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) using Microtox test system (Vibrio fischeri) are available (Cancilla, 1997; Cancilla, 2003; Cornell, 2000; Pillard, 2001). The results are summarized below.


Microtox EC50 (15 min) [mg/L]



4.25 (95% CI 4.18-4.35)

Cancilla, 2003


21 (95% CI 9.0-47)

Pillard, 2001


8.7 (95% CI 8.2-9.2)

1:1 mixture of 4-MBT and 5-MBT

7.3 (95% CI 6.9-7.7)


41.65 ± 11.01

Cancilla, 1997


5.91 ± 1.11

different ADFs with tolyltriazole


Cornell, 2000


Based on these observations the three triazoles can be sorted by decreasing toxicity to Vibrio fischeri (Benzotriazole < 4-methylbenzotriazole < 5-methylbenzotriazole) showing a moderate toxicity, in general. However, since the Microtox test is a single-species test only the ISO study has been rated to be more relevant and accordingly selected as key study for the further assessment. In addition, results in the study according to ISO guideline 8192 are supported by findings in a study with activated sludge exposed to Tolyltriazole showing effect concentrations in the same range like (Gruden et al., 2001)


Cancilla DA et al. (1997) Isolation and characterization of Microtox-active components from aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids, Environ Toxicol Chem, 16, 3, 430-434.

Cancilla DA et al. (2003) Studies of the environmental fate and effect of aircraft deicing fluids: Detection of 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole in the fathead minnow (Pimphales Promelas), Environ Toxicol Chem, 22, 1, 134-140.

Cornell JS et al. (2000) Comparative measures of the toxicity of component chemicals in aircraft deicing fluid, Environ Toxicol Chem, 19, 6, 1465-1472.

Gruden CL, Dow SM, Hernandez, MT (2001) Fate and toxicity of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Additives Through Anaerobic Digestion, Water Environ. Res., 73, 72 -79 .

Pillard DA et al. (2001) Toxicity of Benzotriazole and Benzotriazole derivatives to three aquatic species, Wat Res, 35, 2, 557-560.