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Description of key information

Acute oral toxicity: 

Acute oral toxicity dose (LD50) of Benzyl propionate (CAS no: 122-63-4) was considered based on Sustainability Support Services (Europe) AB (Report No. 14_49_012, 2014) >2000 mg/kg bw; and McGinty et al.(Food and Chemical Toxicology 50, S486–S490, 2012) 3300 mg/kg bw. Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP regulation, Benzyl propionate cannot be classified for acute oral toxicity.

Acute Inhalation toxicity: 

Acute Inhalation toxicity dose (LC50) for Benzyl propionate (CAS no: 122-63-4) was predicted based on OECD QSAR toolbox 105.18 mg/L air (105180 mg/m3). Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP regulation, Benzyl propionate cannot be classified for acute Inhalation toxicity.

Acute Dermal toxicity: 

Acute Dermal toxicity dose (LD50) of Benzyl propionate (CAS no: 122-63-4) was considered based on Sustainability Support Services (Europe) AB (Report No. 14_49_013, 2014) >2000 mg/kg bw; and McGinty et al.(Food and Chemical Toxicology 50, S486–S490, 2012) >5000 mg/kg bw. Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP regulation, Benzyl propionate cannot be classified for acute dermal toxicity.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Justification for type of information:
data is from experimental reports
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 423 (Acute Oral toxicity - Acute Toxic Class Method)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity potential of Benzyl propionate in rats.
GLP compliance:
yes
Test type:
acute toxic class method
Limit test:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Benzyl propionate
- Molecular formula: C10H12O2
- Molecular weight: 164.203 g/mol
- Substance type: organic
- Physical state: Liquid
- Smiles notation: c1(COC(CC)=O)ccccc1
- InChl: 1S/C10H12O2/c1-2-10(11)12-8-9-6-4-3-5-7-9/h3-7H,2,8H2,1H3
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source:Bharat Serum and Vaccines Limited, India.
- Age at study initiation:8- 11 weeks at the time of dosing.
- Health Status:Healthy young adult animals were used for the study. Females were nulliparous and non pregnant.
- Weight at study initiation:Minimum: 181 g and Maximum: 213 g (Individual body weights were within ± 6% prior to treatment after overnight fasting) - Fasting period:Wistar rats were fasted for 16-18 hrs.
- Housing:The animals were housed individually in polycarbonate cages.
- Bedding:All cages were provided with corn cobs.
- Room Sanitation:The experimental room floor and work tops were swept and mopped with disinfectant solution every day.
- Cages and water bottle:All the cages and water bottles were changed at least twice every week.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum):All animals were provided conventional laboratory rodent diet (Nutrivet Life Sciences, Pune) ad libitum.
- Water (e.g. ad libitum):Aqua guard filtered tap water was provided ad libitum via drinking bottles.
- Acclimation period:Animal nos. 1-3 were acclimatized for five days and 4-6 for seven days prior to administration of the test item.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C):Minimum: 20.40°C and Maximum: 23.10°C
- Humidity (%):Minimum: 38.40 % and Maximum: 58.70 %
- Air changes (per hr):More than 12 changes per hour.
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light):12:12

Route of administration:
oral: unspecified
Vehicle:
corn oil
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage):10 ml
- Justification for choice of vehicle:N/A
- Lot/batch no. (if required):MKBD4650
- Purity:N/A

MAXIMUM DOSE VOLUME APPLIED:10 ml/kg body weight.

Doses:
2000 mg/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
6 female rats
Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing:Daily
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
At the end of 14 day observation period, all the survived rats were euthanised by overdose of CO2 for external and internal observations.
- Other examinations performed:
Clinical Observation
After test item administration, individual animals were frequently observed at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours post dosing on day 0 (day of dosing). Subsequently, all the surviving animals were observed once a day during the 14 day observation period.

Body weight
All surviving rats were weighed on days 0 (prior to dosing), 7 and 14. Animals were weighed immediately after found dead.

other:
Mortality
All surviving animals were observed twice daily (morning and evening) for morbidity and mortality, throughout the acclimatization and study period.
Statistics:
No data available
Preliminary study:
No data available
Sex:
female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 2 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: No mortality was observed
Mortality:
No mortality was observed in the animals treated with 2000 mg/kg dose throught out the 14 days observation period post dosing.
Clinical signs:
At 2000 mg/kg, animal nos. 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 were observed normal throughout the experimental period, whereas animal no. 4 was observed normal at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, with mild ataxia from day 1 to 4, with mild tremors on day 1, with mild chromodacryorrhea from day 2 to 6 and with moderate to mild lethargy from day 3 to 9 post dosing followed by normal observation till day 14.
Body weight:
Body weight gain was observed in all the animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight, during the 14 day observation period, as compared to day 0.
Gross pathology:
No external and internal gross pathological changes were seen in all the six animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight during terminal sacrifice.
Other findings:
No data available

Table 1: Individual Animal Body Weight (g) andBody Weight Changes(%)

Sex:Female

Animal No.

Group/ Dose (mg/kg)

Body Weight (gram)

Body Weight Change (%)

Day 0

Day 7

Day 14

Day

0-7

Day

0-14

1

G1/ 2000

213

233

247

9.39

15.96

2

200

227

240

13.50

20.00

3

189

221

252

16.93

33.33

4

194

173

205

-10.82

5.67

5

186

203

209

9.14

12.37

6

181

195

196

7.73

8.29

 

 

 

Table 2: Summary of Animal Body Weight (g) and Body Weight Changes (%)

Sex:Female

Group/ Dose (mg/kg)

Rats Body Weight (g)

Body Weight Changes (%)

Day 0

Day 7

Day 14

0-7

0-14

G1/ 2000

Mean

193.83

208.67

224.83

7.65

15.94

SD

11.44

22.68

24.23

9.66

9.96

n

6

6

6

6

6

Keys:SD = Standard Deviation, n = Number of Animals

 

Table 3: Individual Animal Clinical Signs and Symptoms

Sex:Female

Animal No.

Group/ Dose (mg/kg)

Hours (Day 0)

1/2

1

2

3

4

1

G1/ 2000

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

1

1

1

1

6

1

1

1

1

1

 

Animal No.

Group/ Dose (mg/kg)

Days post dosing

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

1

G1/ 2000

21+

166+

21+

32++

21+

32+

99++

21+

99+

32+

32+

99++

32+

99++

99++

99+

99+

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Keys:1 = Normal, 21 = Ataxia, 32 = Chromodacryorrhea, 99 = Lethargy, 166 = Tremors, + = Mild, ++ = Moderate

 

 

Table 4: Individual Animal Mortality Record

Sex:Female

Animal No.

Group/ Dose (mg/kg)

Day of Observation (Day 0 to 14)

Morning Observations

Evening Observations

1

G1/ 2000

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

2

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

3

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

4

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

5

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

6

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity


Table 5: Gross Necropsy Observation

 Sex:Female

 

Animal No.

Group/ Dose (mg/kg)

Mode of Death

Gross Observation

External

Internal

1

G1/ 2000

Terminal sacrifice

No abnormality detected

No abnormality detected

2

Terminal sacrifice

No abnormality detected

No abnormality detected

3

Terminal sacrifice

No abnormality detected

No abnormality detected

4

Terminal sacrifice

No abnormality detected

No abnormality detected

5

Terminal sacrifice

No abnormality detected

No abnormality detected

6

Terminal sacrifice

No abnormality detected

No abnormality detected

 

Interpretation of results:
other: not classified
Conclusions:
The LD50 was considered to be >2000 mg/kg bw, when female Wistar rats were treated with Benzyl propionate (CAS No.122-63-4) orally.
Executive summary:

Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Benzyl propionate (CAS No. - 122-63-4) was conducted as per OECD No. 423 on 6 female Wistar rats at the concentration of 2000 mg/kg bw. The animals were fasted for minimum 16-18 hours prior to dosing and for 3-4 hours post dosing, with food withheld but drinking water provided ad libitum. The time intervals between dosing were determined by the onset, duration and severity of toxic signs. Three rats of first group were dosed with starting dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight and the animals did not show any mortality so another three animals of the same group were dosed with 2000 mg/kg body weight and no mortality was observed. Hence, further dosing was stopped. Body weights were re­corded on day 0 (prior to dosing) 7 and 14.Body weight gain was observed in all the animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight, during the 14 day observation period, as compared to day 0. At 2000 mg/kg, animal nos. 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 were observed normal throughout the experimental period, whereas animal no. 4 was observed normal at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, with mild ataxia from day 1 to 4, with mild tremors on day 1, with mild chromodacryorrhea from day 2 to 6 and with moderate to mild lethargy from day 3 to 9 post dosing followed by normal observation till day 14. No external and internal gross pathological changes were seen in all the six animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight during terminal sacrifice. No mortality was observed in the animals treated with 2000 mg/kg dose throught out the 14 days observation period post dosing. Hence the LD50 was considered to be >2000mg/kg bw, when female Wistar rats were treated with Benzyl propionate (CAS No.122-63-4) orally.

 

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
Data is Klimisch 1 and from experimental study report.

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.2 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: estimated
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.2.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test type:
other: not specified
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report):Benzyl propionate
- Molecular formula :C10H12O2
- Molecular weight :164.20 g/mol
- Substance type:Organic
- Physical state:Colourless Liquid
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Sprague-Dawley;Spartan;Crj: CD(SD)
Sex:
not specified
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
not specified
Route of administration:
inhalation
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
not specified
Remark on MMAD/GSD:
not specified
Details on inhalation exposure:
not specified
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
not specified
Duration of exposure:
4 h
Remarks on duration:
not specified
Concentrations:
105.18 mg/L
No. of animals per sex per dose:
not specified
Control animals:
not specified
Details on study design:
not specified
Statistics:
not specified
Preliminary study:
not specified
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
105.18 mg/L air
Based on:
test mat.
Exp. duration:
4 h
Remarks on result:
other: 50% mortality was observed
Mortality:
not specified
Clinical signs:
other: not specified
Body weight:
not specified
Gross pathology:
not specified
Other findings:
not specified

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: LC50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 5 nearest neighbours


(((("a" and ( not "b") )  or ("c" and ( not "d") )  or ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and "g" )  and ("h" and "i" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Michael addition AND Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals AND Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Addition of an Acyl Halide OR Acylation >> Direct Addition of an Acyl Halide >> Acyl halide OR Acylation >> Isocyanates and Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> Isocyanates and Isothiocyanates >> Isocyanates OR Acylation >> Isocyanates and Isothiocyanates >> Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Acyl Halides OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Acyl Halides >> 1,1-Dihaloalkanes OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Benzylamines-Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Formamides OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Sulfonylureas OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems >> Furans OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation of Heterocyclic Ring Systems >> Thiophenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> 5-alkoxyindoles OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Alkyl phenols OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Hydroquinones OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Methylenedioxyphenyl OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated aldehydes OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated amides OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated esters OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated ketones OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Quinones OR No alert found OR Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Glyoxal  >> Ethanolamines (including morpholine) OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Mono-aldehydes OR Schiff base formers >> Chemicals Activated by P450 to Mono-aldehydes >> Benzylamines-Schiff base OR Schiff base formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers OR Schiff base formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers >> Mono aldehydes OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic N-Nitro OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Allyl benzenes OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Alpha halo ethers (including alpha halo thioethers) OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Diazoalkanes OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Hydrazine OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> N-Nitroso (alkylation) OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-SN1 OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic nitro OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic phenylureas OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary (unsaturated) heterocyclic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary (unsaturated) heterocyclic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary (unsaturated) heterocyclic amine  OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Unsaturated heterocyclic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Unsaturated heterocyclic ester hydroxylamine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Unsaturated heterocyclic N-hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Unsaturated heterocyclic nitro OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related >> Aziridines OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related >> Epoxides OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation >> 1,2-Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation >> Mustards OR SN2 >> Epoxidation of Aliphatic Alkenes OR SN2 >> Epoxidation of Aliphatic Alkenes >> Phenoxy polarised alkenes OR SN2 >> Nitrosation-SN2 OR SN2 >> Nitrosation-SN2 >> Nitroso-SN2 OR SN2 >> P450 Mediated Epoxidation OR SN2 >> P450 Mediated Epoxidation >> Thiophenes-SN2 OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 Reaction OR SN2 >> Ring opening SN2 Reaction >> Lactones OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Aliphatic halides OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Alkyl carbamates OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Phosphonic esters OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Sulfonates by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, NH2 group OR Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, non cyclic structure OR Strong binder, NH2 group OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, NH2 group OR Weak binder, OH group OR Very strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN2 AND SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom AND SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Allyl acetates and related chemicals by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acyl halides (including benzyl and carbamoyl deriv.) OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Anhydrides OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Azlactone OR Acylation >> Isocyanates and Related Chemicals OR Acylation >> Isocyanates and Related Chemicals >> Isocyanates OR Acylation >> Isocyanates and Related Chemicals >> Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> Isocyanates and Related Chemicals >> Thiocyanates-Acylation OR Acylation >> Ring Opening Acylation OR Acylation >> Ring Opening Acylation >> alpha-Lactams OR Acylation >> Ring Opening Acylation >> beta-Lactones-Acylation OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Acid imides OR Michael addition >> Acid imides >> Acid imides-MA OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - aldehydes OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - amides OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - cyano OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - esters OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - ketones OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes >> Polarised alkene - nitro OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkynes OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkynes >> Polarised alkyne - ester OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Benzoquinones OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Pyranones (and related nitrogen chemicals) OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Quinone-diimine OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Quinone-imine OR Michael addition >> Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Quinone-methides OR No alert found OR Schiff Base Formers OR Schiff Base Formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers OR Schiff Base Formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers >> 1-2-Dicarbonyls OR Schiff Base Formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers >> 1-3-Dicarbonyls OR Schiff Base Formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers >> Di-substituted alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes OR Schiff Base Formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers >> Mono-carbonyls OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation >> 1,2-Dihaloalkane OR SN2 >> Episulfonium Ion Formation >> Mustards OR SN2 >> Epoxides and Related Chemicals OR SN2 >> Epoxides and Related Chemicals >> Epoxides OR SN2 >> Ring Opening SN2 Reaction OR SN2 >> Ring Opening SN2 Reaction >> beta-Lactones-SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a nitrogen atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a nitrogen atom >> N-Acetoxy-N-acetyl-phenyl OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a nitrogen atom >> Nitrosoureas (nitrogen) OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sp2 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sp2 carbon atom >> Polarised alkenes with a halogen leaving group OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sp2 carbon atom >> Polarised alkenes with a phosphate leaving group OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sp2 carbon atom >> Polarised alkenes with a tiophosphate leaving group OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulphur atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulphur atom >> Disulfides OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulphur atom >> Thiocyanates-SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at a sulphur atom >> Thiols OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl diazo OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Halo ethers OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Haloalkenes (and related cyano, sulfate and sulfonate subs. chem.) OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Haloalkynes (and related cyano, sulfate, sulphpnate subs. chem.) OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Halobenzyls (and related cyano, sulfate and sulphonate subs. chem.) OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Halocarbonyls OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> beta-Halo ethers OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Nitrosoureas (carbon) OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Phosphates OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Phosphonates OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Sulfonates OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Thiophosphates OR SNAr OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Activated halo-benzenes OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Activated halo-pyridines OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Halo-pyrimidines OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Halo-triazines by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 3.04

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 4.79

Interpretation of results:
other: Not classified
Conclusions:
LC50 was estimated to be 105.18 mg/L air, when Sprague-Dawley;Spartan;Crj: CD(SD) rats were exposed with Benzyl propionate (122-63-4) via inhalation route by nose only exposure for 4 h.
Executive summary:

In a prediction done by SSS (2014) using the OECD QSAR toolbox with log kow as the primary descriptor, the acute inhalation toxicity was estimated for Benzyl propionate (122-63-4). The LC50 was estimated to be 105.18 mg/L air, when Sprague-Dawley;Spartan;Crj: CD(SD) rats were exposed with Benzyl propionate (122-63-4) via inhalation route by nose only exposure for 4 h.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Value:
105 180 mg/m³
Quality of whole database:
Data is Klimisch 2 and from QSAR toolbox 3.2.

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: dermal
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Justification for type of information:
data is from experimental reports
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 402 (Acute Dermal Toxicity)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The dermal toxicity study of Benzyl propionate was performed in rats by dermal route.
GLP compliance:
yes
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report):Benzyl propionate
- Molecular formula :C10H12O2
- Molecular weight :164.20 g/mol
- Substance type:Organic
- Physical state:Colourless Liquid
- Analytical purity:99.39%
- Lot/batch No.:Lot 1/04
- Storage condition of test material:Tightly closed, in well-ventilated place. Kept away from source of ignition – no smoking.
- Other:
Handling and Disposal
Safety precautions : Precautionary measures against static discharges were taken. Kept away from source of ignition. When using did not eat or drink. Aprons, caps, mask, gloves and goggles were used to ensure the health and safety of the Personnel.

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source:In-House Bred at Sa-Ford, Animal Facility.
- Age at study initiation:N/A
- Health Status:Healthy young adult animals were used for the study. Females were nulliparous and non pregnant.
- Weight (Prior to Treatment):Male:Minimum: 247 g and Maximum: 251 g ,Female:Minimum: 247 g and Maximum: 260 g
- Fasting period before study:N/A
- Housing:The animals were housed individually in polycarbonate cages.
- Bedding : All cages were provided with corn cobs.
- Room Sanitation : The experimental room floor and work tops were swept and mopped with disinfectant solution every day.
- Cages and water bottle : All the cages and water bottles were changed at least twice every week.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum):All animals were provided conventional laboratory rodent diet (Nutrivet Life Sciences, Pune) ad libitum.
- Water (e.g. ad libitum):Aqua guard filtered tap water was provided ad libitum via drinking bottles.
- Acclimation period:All animals were acclimatized to the test conditions for 5 days prior to administration of the test item.
- Randomization : Animals were selected manually. No computer generated randomization program was used.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C):Minimum: 20.40 °C and Maximum: 23.10 °C
- Humidity (%):Minimum: 38.40% and Maximum: 58.70%
- Air changes (per hr):More than 12 changes per hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light):12:12
- IN-LIFE DATES: From: January 30, 2014 to: March, 2014
Type of coverage:
semiocclusive
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on dermal exposure:
TEST SITE
- Area of exposure:The test item was applied uniformly over clipped dorsal area of rat skin.
- % coverage:Approximately 10% body surface area of rat.
- Type of wrap if used:The porous gauze dressing and non-irritating tape.

REMOVAL OF TEST SUBSTANCE
- Washing (if done):The residual test item was removed by using distilled water.
- Time after start of exposure:24-hour.

TEST MATERIAL
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit):A limit dose of 2000 mg/ kg body weight of test item was applied.
- Constant volume or concentration used: yes
- For solids, paste formed: no

VEHICLE
- Amount(s) applied (volume or weight with unit):N/A
- Concentration (if solution):N/A
- Lot/batch no. (if required):N/A
- Purity:N/A
Duration of exposure:
24 hrs
Doses:
2000 mg/kg body weight.
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 (Five per sex)
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing:Daily
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
At the end of 14 day observation period, all the surviving rats were euthanised by overdose of CO2 and subjected to gross pathology examination, for external and internal observations.
- Other examinations performed:
- Clinical signs : After test item administration, individual animals were frequently observed at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours post dosing on day 0 (day of dosing). Subsequently, all animals were observed once a day during the 14 day observation period.

- Body weight: All rats were weighed on days 0 (prior to dosing), 7 and 14.

other:
- Local Signs/Skin Reactions
All animals were observed once daily during days 1-14 (in common with clinical signs).

- Mortality
Animals were observed twice daily for any mortality during the experimental period.
Statistics:
No statistical analysis was performed since the study was terminated with limit test.
Preliminary study:
No data available
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 2 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: No mortality was observed
Mortality:
No mortality was observed at limit dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of test item during the 14 day observation period.
Clinical signs:
No systemic or local signs of toxicity were observed at limit dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of test item during the experimental period.
Body weight:
The male and female animals were observed with body weight gain throughout the experiment, except on day 7 male animals were observed with decline in mean body weight gain as compared to day 0.
Gross pathology:
The external and internal gross pathological observation of all terminally sacrificed animals did not show any pathological abnormality.
Other findings:
No data available

Table 1: Individual Animal Body Weight (g) andBody Weight Changes(%)

 

Dose:2000 mg/ kg bodyweight                                                                              Density:1.0016

Animal No.

Sex

Dose (ml) Applied*

Body Weight (gram)

Body Weight Change (%)

Day 0

Day 7

Day 14

Day 0-7

Day 0-14

1

Male

0.50

250

238

260

-4.80

4.00

2

0.49

247

227

245

-8.10

-0.81

3

0.50

250

243

272

-2.80

8.80

4

0.50

249

244

256

-2.01

2.81

5

0.50

251

256

271

1.99

7.97

6

Female

0.51

253

259

258

2.37

1.98

7

0.50

249

251

255

0.80

2.41

8

0.50

250

248

260

-0.80

4.00

9

0.52

260

267

270

2.69

3.85

10

0.49

247

254

255

2.83

3.24

Key:* = Based on density of test item and day 0 body weight taken prior to dose application.

Table 2: Individual Animal Clinical Signs and Symptoms

 

Dose:2000 mg/kg body weight

Animal No.

Sex

Hour(s) - Day 0

Day

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

1

Male

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

Female

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

7

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

8

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

9

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

10

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Key: 1 = Normal


Table 3: Individual Animal Mortality Record

 

Dose:2000 mg/kg body weight

       Animal No.

Sex

Days of Observation (0 to 14)

Morning Observations

Evening Observations

1

Male

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

2

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

3

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

4

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

5

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

6

Female

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

7

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

8

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

9

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity

10

No mortality and morbidity

No mortality and morbidity



Interpretation of results:
other: not classified
Conclusions:
The LD50 was considered to be >2000mg/kg bw, when rats were treated with Benzyl propionate (CAS No. - 122-63-4) by dermal application.
Executive summary:

Acute Dermal Toxicity Study was conducted using Benzyl propionate (CAS No. - 122-63-4) as per OECD No.402 in 10 male and female healthy young adult Wistar rats which were randomly selected and used for conducting acute dermal toxicity study at the concentration of 2000 mg/kg bw. Rats free from injury and irritation of skin were selected for the study. 24 hours prior to dermal application of test item, approximately 10% of body surface area of each rat was clipped. A limit dose of 2000 mg/ kg body weight of test item was applied by single dermal application and observed for 14 days after treatment. On test day 0,as such amount of test item, calculated based on density (1.0016) and body weight was applied directly on the intact skin of clipped area of rats; the surgical gauze patch was put on to the intact skin of clipped area. This porous gauze dressing was covered with a non-irritating adhesive tape. The porous gauze dressing was wrapped around the abdomen and anchored with non-irritating adhesive tape. After the 24-hour application period, the dressings were removed and the skin was gently wiped with distilled water. The skin reactions were assessed. The animals were observed daily for mortality and clinical signs, during the acclimatization period. All animals were observed for clinical signs at approximately 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after treatment on day 0 and once daily during test days 1‑14. Mortality was recorded after application on test day 0 and twice daily during days 1-14 (at least once on the day of sacrifice). Local signs / Skin reactions were observed daily from test days 1-14 (in common with clinical signs). Body weights were re­corded on day 0 (prior to application) and on day 7 and 14. All animals were necropsied and examined macroscopically. No mortality was observed in any animal till the end of the experimental period. No clinical signs and any skin reaction were observed throughout the experimental period in all treated animals. The male and female animals were observed with body weight gain throughout the experiment, except on day 7 male animals were observed with decline in mean body weight gain as compared to day 0. The external and internal gross pathological observation of all terminally sacrificed animals did not show any pathological abnormality. Hence the LD50 was considered to be >2000mg/kg bw. When rats were treated with  Benzyl propionate (CAS No. - 122-63-4) by dermal application.


Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Value:
2 000 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
Data is Klimisch 1 and from experimental study report.

Additional information

Acute oral toxicity:

In an experimental study conducted by Sustainability Support Services (Europe) AB (Report No. 14_49_012, 2014) was designed for Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Benzyl propionate (CAS No. 122-63-4) was conducted as per OECD No. 423 on 6 female Wistar rats at the concentration of 2000 mg/kg bw. The animals were fasted for minimum 16-18 hours prior to dosing and for 3-4 hours post dosing, with food withheld but drinking water provided ad libitum. The time intervals between dosing were determined by the onset, duration and severity of toxic signs. Three rats of first group were dosed with starting dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight and the animals did not show any mortality so another three animals of the same group were dosed with 2000 mg/kg body weight and no mortality was observed. Hence, further dosing was stopped. Body weights were re­corded on day 0 (prior to dosing) 7 and 14.Body weight gain was observed in all the animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight, during the 14 day observation period, as compared to day 0. At 2000 mg/kg, animal nos. 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 were observed normal throughout the experimental period, whereas animal no. 4 was observed normal at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, with mild ataxia from day 1 to 4, with mild tremors on day 1, with mild chromodacryorrhea from day 2 to 6 and with moderate to mild lethargy from day 3 to 9 post dosing followed by normal observation till day 14. No external and internal gross pathological changes were seen in all the six animals treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight during terminal sacrifice. No mortality was observed in the animals treated with 2000 mg/kg dose throught out the 14 days observation period post dosing. Hence the LD50 was considered to be >2000mg/kg bw, when female Wistar rats were treated with Benzyl propionate (CAS No.122-63-4) orally.

In another experimental study conducted by McGinty et al.(Food and Chemical Toxicology 50, S486–S490, 2012) for Benzyl propionate (CAS No.122-63-4), the acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) was considered to be 3300 mg/kg bw, when rats were tretaed with Benzyl propionate via oral route.

Thus, based on the above studies on Benzyl propionate (CAS no: 122-63-4), it can be concluded that LD50 value is >2000 mg/kg bw. Thus, comparing these values with the criteria of CLP regulation, Benzyl propionate cannot be classified for acute oral toxicity.

Acute Inhalation Toxicity:

In a prediction done by SSS (2014) using the OECD QSAR toolbox with log kow as the primary descriptor, the acute inhalation toxicity was estimated for Benzyl propionate (122-63-4). The LC50 was estimated to be 105.18 mg/L air, when Sprague-Dawley;Spartan;Crj: CD(SD) rats were exposed with Benzyl propionate (122-63-4) via inhalation route by nose only exposure for 4 h.

Thus, based on the above study onBenzyl propionate (CAS no: 122-63-4), it can be concluded that LC50 value is >5 mg/L air. Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP regulation, Benzyl propionate cannot be classified for acute Inhalation toxicity.

Acute Dermal toxicity:

In an experimental study conducted by Sustainability Support Services (Europe) AB (Report No. 14_49_013, 2014) was designed for Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Benzyl propionate (CAS No. 122-63-4) was conducted as per OECD No.402 in 10 male and female healthy young adult Wistar rats which were randomly selected and used for conducting acute dermal toxicity study at the concentration of 2000 mg/kg bw. Rats free from injury and irritation of skin were selected for the study. 24 hours prior to dermal application of test item, approximately 10% of body surface area of each rat was clipped. A limit dose of 2000 mg/ kg body weight of test item was applied by single dermal application and observed for 14 days after treatment. On test day 0,as such amount of test item, calculated based on density (1.0016) and body weight was applied directly on the intact skin of clipped area of rats; the surgical gauze patch was put on to the intact skin of clipped area. This porous gauze dressing was covered with a non-irritating adhesive tape. The porous gauze dressing was wrapped around the abdomen and anchored with non-irritating adhesive tape. After the 24-hour application period, the dressings were removed and the skin was gently wiped with distilled water. The skin reactions were assessed. The animals were observed daily for mortality and clinical signs, during the acclimatization period. All animals were observed for clinical signs at approximately 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after treatment on day 0 and once daily during test days 1‑14. Mortality was recorded after application on test day 0 and twice daily during days 1-14 (at least once on the day of sacrifice). Local signs / Skin reactions were observed daily from test days 1-14 (in common with clinicalsigns). Body weights were re­corded on day 0 (prior to application) and on day 7 and 14. All animals were necropsied and examined macroscopically. No mortality was observed in any animal till the end of the experimental period. No clinical signs and any skin reaction were observed throughout the experimental period in all treated animals. The male and female animals were observed with body weight gain throughout the experiment, except on day 7 male animals were observed with decline in mean body weight gain as compared to day 0. The external and internal gross pathological observation of all terminally sacrificed animals did not show any pathological abnormality. Hence the LD50 was considered to be >2000mg/kg bw, when rats were treated with Benzyl propionate (CAS No. 122-63-4) by dermal application.

In another experimental study conducted by McGinty et al.(Food and Chemical Toxicology 50, S486–S490, 2012) for Benzyl propionate (CAS No.122-63-4), the acute dermal toxicity study was conducted in 5 rabbits at the concentration of 5000 mg/kg bw. No mortality was observed at 5000 mg/kg bw. Hence, LD50 was considered to be >5000 mg/kg bw, when rabbits were treated with Benzyl propionate by dermal application to the skin.

Thus, based on the above studies on Benzyl propionate (CAS No.122-63-4), it can be concluded that LD50 value is >2000 mg/kg bw. Thus, comparing this value with the criteria of CLP regulation, Benzyl propionate cannot be classified for acute dermal toxicity.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the above studies and prediction on Benzyl propionate (CAS No.122-63-4), it can be concluded that LD50 value is >2000 mg/kg bw for acute oral and dermal toxiciy; and LC50 value is >5 mg/L air for acute inhalation toxicity. Thus, comparing these values with the criteria of CLP regulation, Benzyl propionate cannot be classified for acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity.

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