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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
Not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Tests performed in accordance with recognised testing guidelines (although detailed methodology is not given). Results presented in summary only. No GLP, but peer reviewed. No purity reported.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ISO 11269-2
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
yes
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
other: Eudicots
Test type:
seed germination/root elongation toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: Sandy, Silty & Loamy soils
Limit test:
no
Remarks:
No data
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
Avena sativa
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
>= 452 - <= 687 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: germination & growth
Species:
Brassica rapa
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
>= 16 - <= 39 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: germination & growth

The results for the terrestrial tests based on nominal concentrations are presented in Table 6.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
In a terrestrial germination and growth test with plants Avena sativa and Brassica rapa, according to ISO 11269-2, the EC50 values for Sandy, Silty & Loamy soils are 452 (250–1332), 553 (324–1418) and 687 (521–998) mg/kg for A. savita and 25 (0.1–85), 16 (2.4–33.1) and 39 (33–46) mg/kg for B. rapa respectively.
Executive summary:

In a terrestrial germination and growth test with plants Avena sativa and Brassica rapa, according to ISO 11269-2, the EC50 values for Sandy, Silty & Loamy soils are 452 (250–1332), 553 (324–1418) and 687 (521–998) mg/kg for A. savita and 25 (0.1–85), 16 (2.4–33.1) and 39 (33–46) mg/kg for B. rapa respectively.

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
Not specified
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Not GLP, but peer reviewed. No purity reported. Test appears to have been well conducted and details of the methodology used have been well reported.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Test material solutions 10ˆ−5, 10ˆ−6 and 10ˆ−7 M were obtained by diluting a 10ˆ−4 M solution, containing 1 % (v/v) of DMSO.
Furthermore, in order to verify the possible influence of DMSO, a 1 % solution of DMSO was also prepared as control.
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Species:
other: Solanun tuberosum
Plant group:
other: Eudicots
Species:
other: Solanum melongena
Plant group:
other: Eudicots
Test type:
not specified
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
168 h
Details on results:
The obtained results showed that the test material influenced not only morphology, but also the physiology of the vegetable cells since, despite the low concentrations used, the stress the cells were submitted to was experimentally confirmed. Moreover, the increase in the tin concentration in the cells, with increasing incubation time, showed that the test material possesses a very high capacity to be bioaccumulated and, as a consequence, it is able to enter the food chain.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The obtained results showed that the test material influenced not only morphology, but also the physiology of the vegetable cells since, despite the low concentrations used, the stress the cells were submitted to was experimentally confirmed.
Executive summary:

Effects of organotin compounds on vascular plant cells were tested, by studying the interaction of the test material with Allium cepa, Solanun tuberosum and Solanum melongena, vascular plants that are directly involved in the human food chain. The test material effects on mitotic metaphase plates, on pollen grains and on both microtubers and adult tuber parenchymatic cells were investigated and the concentrations of the test material inside the treated parenchymatic cells were determined through ICP-mass spectrometry. Oxygen and chlorophyll productions were also determined. The obtained results showed that the test material influenced not only morphology, but also the physiology of the vegetable cells since, despite the low concentrations used, the stress the cells were submitted to was experimentally confirmed. Moreover, the increase in the tin concentration in the cells, with increasing incubation time, showed that the test material possesses a very high capacity to be bioaccumulated and, as a consequence, it is able to enter the food chain.

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Supporting information is available for this endpoint:

- In the Hund-Rinke & Simon (2005) paper, a terrestrial germination and growth test with plants Avena sativa and Brassica rapa was conducted according to ISO 11269-2.

The EC50 values for Sandy, Silty & Loamy soils are 452 (250–1332), 553 (324–1418) and 687 (521–998) mg/kg for A. savita and 25 (0.1–85), 16 (2.4–33.1) and 39 (33–46) mg/kg for B. rapa respectively.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997.

- In the Caratozzolo et al (2007) paper, effects of organotin compounds on vascular plant cells were tested, by studying the interaction of the test material with Allium cepa, Solanun tuberosum and Solanum melongena, vascular plants that are directly involved in the human food chain.

The obtained results showed that the test material influenced not only morphology, but also the physiology of the vegetable cells since, despite the low concentrations used, the stress the cells were submitted to was experimentally confirmed.

A reliability rating of 2 was assigned to this study, according to the criteria of Klimisch, 1997.