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Endpoint:
explosiveness, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1988
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Remarks:
No description of test method.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
There is no description of the methods, only the results are given.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to shock than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to friction than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Parameter:
other: Explosive under influence of flame
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Key result
Parameter:
other: Explosive (not specified)
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Remarks:
not explosive in case of coarse particles
Key result
Parameter:
other: Explosive (not specified)
Remarks on result:
positive (not further specified)
Remarks:
explosive in technical and grinded form

The explosive properties of coarse, technical and grinded dicyandiamide are investigated in a 1m³ container with an ignition energy of 10,000 J.

Coarse dicyandiamide was found to be not explosive (explosion class 0).

Technically and grinded dicyandiamide were both found to be explosive (explosion category 1).

Coarse dicyandiamide (median particle diameter 240µm):

Maxmimum explosion pressure: Pmax = none

Kst-value: Kst = none

lower detonation limit: EXu = none

Ignition temperature: Tz = 750°C

Flammability (Bewertungszahl, BWZ): BWZ=1 (no ignition observed)

Smouldering temperature: no smouldering observed until 450°C

Technical dicyandiamide (median particle diameter 43µm):

Maxmimum explosion pressure: Pmax = 8.4 bar

Kst-value: Kst = 56 bar*m/s

lower detonation limit: EXu = 125 g/m³

Ignition temperature: Tz = 750°C

Flammability (Bewertungszahl, BWZ): BWZ=1 (no ignition observed)

Smouldering temperature: no smouldering observed until 450°C

Grinded dicyandiamide (median particle diameter 17µm):

Maxmimum explosion pressure: Pmax = 9.0 bar

Kst-value: Kst = 62 bar*m/s

lower detonation limit: EXu = 125 g/m³

Ignition temperature: Tz = 750°C

Flammability (Bewertungszahl, BWZ): BWZ=1 (no ignition observed)

Smouldering temperature: no smouldering observed until 450°C

Interpretation of results:
other: Coarse dicyandiamide (DCD) has no explosive properties. Technically DCD as well as grinded DCD representing DCD in dust form showed explosive properties. The ign. temp. was determ. at 750°C for all three types. All three types were classified as BWZ 1.
Conclusions:
Coarse dicyandiamid (particle diameter 240µm) has no explosive properties.
Technically dicyandiamid (particle diameter 43µm) as well as grinded dicyandiamid (particle diameter 17µm) representing dicyandiamid in dust form showed explosive properties. The ignition temperature was determined to be 750°C for all three types. All three types were classified as BWZ 1 (flammability: no ignition observed)
Executive summary:

Explosive properties of dicyandiamide were tested by the "Westphalian Mining Union Cash Office" ("Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse"). Dicyandiamide was tested in three different particle sizes: coarse (particle diameter 240µm), technical (particle diameter 43µm) as well as grinded (particle diameter 17µm). The following parameters were determined: maximum detonation pressure (Pmax), Kst-value and lower detonation limit (EXu) to evaluate the posssible (dust) explosive properties as well as the ignition temperatur (Tz). Coarse dicyandiamide showed no explosive properties (dust explosion class 0) whereas technical and grinded dicyandiamide are classified as explosive in dust form (both dust explosion class 1). The ignition temperature of dicyandiamide was determined to be 750°C for the three types not depending on the particle size. The flammability of all three types were classifeid as BWZ 1; Thus no ignition was observed when dicyandiamide was tested for flammability with an open flame. The smouldering temperature was determined to be greater than 450°C for all three types.

Endpoint:
explosiveness, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
August 1993 - Febbruary 2003
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Remarks:
The test method is described in a separate document.
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The test methods are described in another document. This does not impair the conclusion of the test results. The thermal sensitivity is not investigated within this study. The principles of the test methods including their deviations to the guideline are described in detail in the field "any other information on materials and methods".
GLP compliance:
not specified
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to shock than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to friction than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Key result
Parameter:
other: Explosive (not specified)
Remarks:
mechanical sensitivity (shock and friction)
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Remarks:
Negative results with regard to shock and friction

Both tests regarding the mechanical sensitivity (friction and shock) were negative. Dicyandiamid was found to be not sensitive neither to friction nor shock.

Interpretation of results:
other: Dicyandiamide is not sensitive to friction and shock (mechanical sensitivity)
Conclusions:
Dicyandiamide is not sensitive to friction and shock (mechanical sensitivity).
Executive summary:

The study investigates the mechanical sensitivity of dicyandiamide, i.e. the sensitivity to friction and to shock.

The test methods are very similar to those of guideline A.14 and are described in another document. This fact does not impair the conclusion of the test results. Both test results are negative. Dicyandiamide is not sensitive to friction and to shock. The thermal sensivity was not investigated within this study. Therefore, it is concluded that dicyandiamid is not exploded wtih respect to mechanical sensivitity.

Endpoint:
explosive properties of explosives
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
August 1993 - Febbruary 2003
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
The test method is described in a separate document.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The test methods are described in another document. This does not impair the conclusion of the test results. The thermal sensitivity is not investigated within this study. The test for dust explosion is described instead. The principles of the test methods are described in detail in the field "any other information on materials and methods".
GLP compliance:
not specified
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to shock than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Parameter:
other: More sensitive to friction than m-dinitrobenzene
Remarks on result:
not measured/tested
Parameter:
other: Explosive (not specified)
Remarks:
mechanical sensitivity (shock and friction)
Remarks on result:
negative (not further specified)
Remarks:
with respect to mechanical sensitivity

Both tests regarding the mechanical sensitivity (friction and shock) were negative. Dicyandiamid was found to be not sensitive neither to friction nor shock.

Interpretation of results:
other: Dicyandiamide is not sensitive to friction and shock (mechanical sensitivity).
Conclusions:
Dicyandiamide is not sensitive to friction and shock (mechanical sensitivity).
Executive summary:

The study investigates the mechanical sensitivity of dicyandiamide, i.e. the sensitivity to friction and to shock.

The test methods are very similar to those of guideline A.14 and are described in another document. This fact does not impair the conclusion of the test results. Both test results are negative. Dicyandiamide is not sensitive to friction and to shock. The thermal sensivity was not investigatedwithin this study. Therefore it is concluded that dicyandiamide is not exploded wtih respect to mechanical sensivitity.

Description of key information

Two studies are available. The first study investigates the mechanical sensitivity (shock and friction)

according to a test method similar to guideline A.14. The second study shows the result of several tests with regard to explosive properties of dicyandiamide in three different median particle sizes (normal: 240µm, dust: 43 and 17µm).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Explosiveness:
non explosive

Additional information

Mechanical sensitivity of dicyandiamide, i.e. the sensitivity to friction and to shock, was investigated similar to guideline A.14. Dicyandiamide is determined to be not sensitive to friction and to shock. The thermal sensitivity was not investigated within this study. Therefore it is concluded that dicyandiamide is not explosive with respect to mechanical sensitivity. A second publication shows the result of several tests with regard to explosive properties of DCD in different particle sizes (median: 240 µm, dust: 43 µm and 17 µm). Whereas DCD with smaller particle diameters is evaluated to be dust explosive, DCD as such proved no explosive properties. As the dust explosion test is conducted by a notified body (westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse) and the other parameters reported are conclusive with test results of guideline studies of other endpoints (refer to IUCLID section 4.12 auto flammability and 4.13 flammability), the test result is assumed to be reliable. Therefore, DCD is concluded to be non explosive.

Justification for classification or non-classification

2 -Cyanoguanidine does not show explosive properties under the test conditions.

Therefore it is concluded that 2 -Cyanoguanidine is not explosive.