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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
other information
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable publication

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Plant toxicity testing to derive ecological soil screening levels for cobalt and nickel
Author:
Kaputzka et al
Year:
2006
Bibliographic source:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol 25, No. 3, pp:865-874

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: American Society for testing and materials international E1963-98, Standard Guideline for conducting terrestrial plant toxicity tests
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Nickel dichloride
EC Number:
231-743-0
EC Name:
Nickel dichloride
Cas Number:
7718-54-9
IUPAC Name:
nickel(2+) dichloride
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Nickelchloride (NiCl2)

Test substrate

Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used): Aliqotes of tge high-concentration batch were mixed with clean soil to make the lower concentration batches. These were first mixed by hand in plastic bags and then placed into a mechanical mixer for 15 minutes. The batches were again mixed by hand and returned to the mixer for another 15 minutes.

Test organisms

open allclose all
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Alfalfa

Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Spring Barley

Species:
Brassica rapa
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Brassica

Study design

Test type:
other: endpoints were emergence, mortality, shoot heighz, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weightand nodule number
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no

Test conditions

Test temperature:
20.6-24.2 °C
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3-6
- No. of replicates per control: 3-6


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: The natural soil was selected from the Camas series (Willamette Valley, OR, USA) purchased from Green and White (Corvallis, OR, USA)
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 88.8 %,
- % silt: 8.0%
- % clay: 3.2 %

- Composition: artifical soil
- Organic carbon (%): 5 % organic matter

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16:8 light-dark cycle
- Light source: 48-inch fluorecent 40 watt full spectrum bulb
- Light intensity and quality: 164 - 242 µmol/m²/s PAR


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : emergence, mortality, shoot heighz, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weightand nodule number

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: The NOAEC observed in the range-finding test was used as a predictor of the EC20 target level for the definitve test. the concentration sequence was designed to have one to three test concentrations below the EC20 and and five to six test concentrations above the EC20.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal concentrations: 0.0, 0.3, 3.0, 30, 300, 3000 mg/kg.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Boric acid

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
201.1 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Nickel
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Artifical soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
124.6 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Nickel
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Camas soil (natural)
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
256.2 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Nickel
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Artifical soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
179.8 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Nickel
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Camas soil (natural)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
43.2 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Nickel
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Artifical soil
Species:
Brassica rapa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
63 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
Nickel
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Camas soil (natural)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
317.66 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
other: Nickeldihydroxid
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Artifical soil. Result calculated for Nickeldihydroxid
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
196.8 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
other: Nickeldihydroxid
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Camas soil (natural). Result calculated for Nickeldihydroxid
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
404.7 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
other: Nickeldihydroxid
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Artifical soil. Result calculated for Nickeldihydroxid
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
284 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
other: Nickeldihydroxid
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Camas soil (natural). Result calculated for Nickeldihydroxid
Species:
Brassica rapa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
68.24 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
other: Nickeldihydroxid
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Artifical soil. Result calculated for Nickeldihydroxid
Species:
Brassica rapa
Dose descriptor:
other: EC20
Effect conc.:
99.5 mg/kg soil dw
Conc. based on:
other: Nickeldihydroxid
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: Camas soil (natural). Result calculated for Nickeldihydroxid

Any other information on results incl. tables

Endpoint

Arifical soil

Camas Soil

Alfalfa

EC20 (mg/Kg)

EC20 (mg/kg)

Emergence

201.1

124.6

Mortality

319.7

176.5

Shoot height

20

26.4

Root length

15.7

33.1

Shoot dry weight

40

24.9

Shoot dry weight/plant

36.4

25.3

Root dry weight

22.4

26.5

Root dry weight/plant

12.9

27.4

Total dry weight

34.5

25.0

Total dry weight/plant

27.4

25.3

Barley

Emergence

256.2

179.8

Mortality

593.6

760.8

Shoot height

19.8

69.0

Root length

24.4

67.6

Shoot dry weight

17.5

67.3

Shoot dry weight/plant

18.8

65.0

Root dry weight

8.5

73.8

Root dry weight/plant

7.0

76.3

Total dry weight

13.5

69.7

Total dry weight/plant

14.2

69.2

Brassica

Emergence

43.2

63.0

Mortality

> 5000

4001.9

Shoot height

24.3

42.2

Root length

8.4

30.0

Shoot dry weight

18.5

30.9

Shoot dry weight/plant

18.6

36.6

Root dry weight

26.0

35.2

Root dry weight/plant

28.7

44.7

Total dry weight

21.2

33.7

Total dry weight/plant

22.5

39.4

Applicant's summary and conclusion